Giddens ( 1989 ) defines sociology in the undermentioned manner: “ Sociology is the survey of human societal life, groups and societies. It is a dazzling and compelling endeavor, holding as its capable affair our ain behavior as societal existences. The range of sociology is highly broad, runing from the analysis of go throughing brushs between persons in the street up to the probe of global societal procedures ” . Sociology is a important topic so it is about impossible to cognize all its facet, it is merely possible to larn how to use “ sociological imaginativeness ” , that is why all the sociologicalA theories may be broadlyA divided into macro andA micro attacks, which will be deeper discussed and considered from each angle in this essay.
Micro sociologyA is one of the chief subdivisions ofA sociology, analyzing the nature of mundane humanA societal interactionsA andA agencyA on a little graduated table. Micro sociology is based on interpretive analysis instead than statistical or empirical observation. It includes a theory of Symbolic interactionism that focuses on the usage of symbols and face-to-face interactions. Micro sociology appeared in the late 30s of this century and had another name – sociometry. This term is associated with Jacob L. Moreno, who was aA JewishA Romanian-bornA Austrian-AmericanA leadingA head-shrinker, sociologist, mind andA pedagogue. During his life-time, he was recognized as one of the taking societal scientists. Sociometry has got really original research methods, which are widely used asA a general scientificA toolA inA variousA socialA surveies. For Moreno three the most of import constructs of the sociometry were: “ socius ” – comrade, “ metrum ” – measuring and “ play ” – action. Moreno ( 1948 ) defines sociometry as “ the enquiry into the development and organisation of groups and the place of persons within them. “ A ForA MorenoA andA otherA representatives ofA sociometry the mainA object ofA researchA is an bing smallA societal groups and the mostA of import, A whatA characterizes these societal groups isA the people ‘s emotionalA relationshipA with each other that isA formingA an atomisticA construction ofA society. SimpleA observations are notA able toA gaining control theseA relationships, A butA they canA beA identified byA utilizing specificA measuring methods, A peculiarly surveyA techniquesA and processing of informations. For illustration: sociometric trials, sociomatrices and sociograms. ThisA technique allowsA observing theA actualA state of affairss of conflictA andA effortsA to extinguish them. The creative activity of sociometry has significantly contributed to the sociology and is considered to be one of the most important accomplishments of sociology as a scientific discipline for the full period of its existence.A The debut of quantitative methods in sociology well transformed it and allowed to analyze with unprecedented accuracy.A One of the most important effects of creative activity of the micro sociology has become the addition of involvement and chances for societal research in the survey of assorted jobs of human being with the usage of quantative methods and modern computing machine engineerings.
Functionalists mainlyA focal point on theA ” macrostructures ” A of society, A but representativesA of symbolicA interactionismA are usuallyA more concerned about “ micro aspects’A of societal life. Besides they argue that micro sociology is more utile for analyzing society. For instanceA JohnA H.Mead andA H.A BlumerA studied theA socialA interactionA of individualsA andA speculatedA howA they manage toA coordinate their actions with each other.
The Representatives of symbolic interactionism stress the fact that people are societal beings.A However, in comparing with emmets, bees, white ants and other insects, that are taking a societal life, people about do non hold any built-in theoretical accounts of behaviour that connect us with each other. Consequently, A if people have basically no built-in nature of the mechanisms of societal behaviuor it is non clear how society can be created.A Representatives of symbolic interactionism find the reply in the ability of people to pass on through the symbols. Geogre Herbert Meed ( 1863-1931 ) and other representatives of symbolic interactionism province that we perform an act by conforming to the significance we put in it. Generally Blumer states that the significance is non something ab initio related to the things, on the contrary, it is characteristic which emerges from the interaction between people in their mundane life. In otherA words, socialA realityA is createdA by peopleA when theyA actA in thisA universe andA interpretA eventsA happening inA it.
Nietzsche ‘s 1880 ‘s notebooks repeatedly province that “ there are no facts, merely readings. ” WeA choose theA factsA from theA universalA contextA byA the activityA of ourA encephalon, andA because of that allA the “ facts ” A are the creationsA of a man.A Consequently, representatives ofA symbolicA interactionismA believeA thatA we perceive the worldA asA constructedA world.
AllA this leadsA representativesA of symbolic interactionismA to the conclusionA thatA ifA sociologistsA want toA survey theA lifeA of society, they must foremost understand theA wordsA and actions ofA members ofA this society, A takingA theirA pointA of view.A ThisA theoryA was largelyA influenced byA WeberianA conceptA of understandingA ( Verstehen ) or ’empathetic apprehension. This gives an chance to the sociologists to “ mentally set themselves into “ the other individual ‘s places ” and therefore obtain an “ interpretative apprehension ” of the significances of persons ‘ behaviors. ”
To reason, the advantageA of this approachA is thatA itA introduces theA ” people ” in theA view ofA sociological research.A ItA paysA attentionA toA the activitiesA of individualsA inA theirA dailyA lives andA sees that theA peopleA are non automatons that automatically transport out the orders of societal regulations and institutional normsA but existences that areA livingA theirA livesA and have got and ability toA think. Through interaction, they operate on symbols and significances aˆ‹aˆ‹that enable them to construe the state of affairs, assess the advantages and disadvantages of certain actions and so take one of them.A Thus, representatives of symbolic interactionism suggest the image of a adult male as an person, actively determining his behaviour, instead than passively responding to external dictates of structural restrictions.