Comparison of Social and Religious Life in Congo

Life styles of people in two different environments are dictated by a figure of factors. Types and degree of available resources are some of the factors that contribute to determining of an person ‘s life style and personality ( Lloyd et al, 1949 ) . As posited by Lloyd et Al. ( 1949 ) , assorted regulations and ordinances, either at a social degree or at a state degree, besides modify a individual ‘s behaviour. In all facets of life, these environmental factors play an of import function in transforming how people behave and the life they choose to populate ( Moore, 2001 ) . These facets of life include societal, spiritual, emotional, and physical being. Social life, for case, explains the interaction and relationship of persons in a peculiar apparatus. Religious life, on the other manus, explains a individual ‘s belief or orientation to a supernatural being ( Tshilemalema, 2002 ) . This paper compares societal and spiritual life in Congo to that in the United States. In peculiar, the paper high spots similarities and differences in these two facets of life in the two states.

Social Life: An Overview

Social life explains how persons in a society interact and relate with one another ( Lloyd et al. , 1949 ) . It besides describes how a individual observes social regulations and ordinance or an attempt made by the person to detect the same. In add-on, societal life of a specific people highlights societal stratification and forms found within that group ( Lloyd et al. , 1949 ) . Social stratification can either be in footings of wealth, degree of instruction, type of occupation and salary earned by a individual or his/her cultural beginning. Originating from varied societal regulations that exist in different societies, different groups of people in a society have diverse functions they perform to guarantee continual societal coherence.

Differences in societal life in Congo and United States

The figure of societal categories formed in the two states is one facet of the difference in societal life in them. In Congo, there are two major societal categories. These are the urban and rural inhabitants ( Tshilemalema, 2002 ) . The two categories can be described as the working category, who spend most of the clip in town and the low-level category, whose full lives is about bound by Congolese traditions. Congo is non every bit developed as United States ; hence, concentration of places in the small town is governed by the presence of societal comfortss like schools and infirmaries. The type of colony is, therefore, concentrated around these societal focal points ( Moore, 2001 ) . In towns, colony of people is governed by the presence or absence of employment chances, handiness of basic life demands like wellness and instruction services, and security. In Congo, town inhabitants tend to settle in parts where they can acquire their basic demands easy ( Tshilemalema, 2002 ) .

Because places are concentrated around peculiar points in Congo, cardinal topographic points are identified where cookery and eating take topographic point ( Tshilemalema, 2002 ) . These topographic points, therefore, let societal interaction among people of different cultural background. The topographic points, in add-on, act as centres for informal instruction where regulations and ordinances of a society are discussed. Societies in Congo are characterized fluctuation of gender functions ( Tshilemalema, 2002 ) . Women in rural countries are seen as persons whose functions should be around the houses. In this respect, rural adult females are extremely discouraged from achieving high educational degrees and extremely paying occupations. Alternatively, they are encouraged to concentrate on domestic responsibilities. Womans are non allowed to take part in work outing societal affairs in a society because of limited power granted unto them ( Tshilemalema, 2002 ) . Division of labour between work forces, adult females and kids is besides common in these societies ( LaVigne, 2009 ) . Womans are assigned domestic responsibilities whereas work forces seek for employment elsewhere outside the society. This is a mark of male jingoism in the two states ( Tshilemalema, 2002 ) .

Comparison of overall installations nowadays in the urban and rural topographic points indicates that societal comfortss like formal instruction are limited in the small towns. Consequently, rural persons have low educational degree and therefore, are merely employed on low-earning occupations. In Congo small towns, regard is accorded to a individual based on his/her position and functions she/he dramas in a society ( Tshilemalema, 2002 ) . Status of a place or type of household raised by a individual is used as parametric quantity to separate between rich and hapless people. This difference in life criterions of urban and rural inhabitants has contributed to favoritism against the low-life criterion persons ( Tshilemalema, 2002 ) . For case, the pigmies, besides known as wood inhabitants, have been denied assorted services and received low rewards and wages because they have few representatives in the authorities ( Pobee & A ; Mwaura, 2001 ) .

In the US, three societal categories are present, which are the low, in-between, and upper categories ( Lloyd et al. , 1949 ) . As one moves from low to upper category life criterions besides bit by bit increase. Stratification in the United States is in footings of wealth, educational degree, and type occupation a individual does ( Lloyd et al. , 1949 ) . In the U.S. , wealth of a individual is measured in footings of entire assets a individual has and how much a individual has invested his or her assets. Respect is accorded to a individual based on the characteristics that contribute to stratification. United States in a developed state, therefore, there is unvarying spread of resources and installations. Distribution of population in U.S. is, hence, unvarying unlike in Congo where there is clustered colony around centres for societal comfortss and other public installations. The quality of societal comfortss in U.S. is higher than in Congo ; hence, the overall life criterions in U.S. are higher than in Congo. Because of high spread of formal educational services, degree of instruction in U.S. is higher than that in in Congo.

Similarities in societal life in Congo and United States

In the two states there are regulations and ordinances, both at a society degree and at a province degree ( Moore, 2001 ) . These regulations govern the behaviour and interactions of persons in the two states. The regulations are, therefore, used as a guideline to separate between good and bad or condemnable Acts of the Apostless. In both instances, a particular group of persons are given the duty of work outing societal affairs ( Moore, 2001 ; Tshilemalema, 2002 ) . For case, tribunal systems are present in the two states, where any difference is solved. Behaviors and characters of a individual are shaped in a society by regulations formulated by the two authoritiess. The Torahs further provide the types and signifiers of penalties that are applied for misdemeanor of any of the State Torahs. To the Native Americans, regulations and ordinances are formulated by seniors in a society who understand the American civilization ( Lincoln, 1999 ) . A particular group of seniors, for both Native Americans and Congo diehards, are appointed on occasion to move as Judgess.

Another facet of societal similarity in the two states is in the place adult females in the society ( Moore, 2001 ; Tshilemalema, 2002 ) . Ranging from the types of occupations done by adult females, income rates, and functions they play in a society, adult females are allocated lower places than work forces. Harmonizing to Torahs of the two states, favoritism against any sex, cultural group or race is illegal. Any effort of favoritism is extremely punishable harmonizing to the stated Torahs. The two states besides advocate for equal intervention of workers at workplaces. The state of affairs is, nevertheless, different in the two states because adult females are below the belt treated at workplaces ( Pobee & A ; Mwaura, 2001 ) . Claims raised by adult females are non addressed suitably because adult females are underrepresented in any organisation. This favoritism has forced adult females to acquire into informal sectors.

Religious Life: An Overview

Religious life of a individual includes beliefs that an person has on a peculiar supernatural being and patterns a individual perform in order to demo his/her beliefs ( Lincoln, 1999 ) . It besides includes symbolic actions, events and/or points used to portray these beliefs and patterns. In some instances, spiritual life of a given group of people is tied to traditions patterns of the same group of persons ( Lincoln, 1999 ) .

Differences in spiritual life in Congo and United States

One facet of spiritual life, which is different in Congo as is in the US is the overall cardinal values and beliefs held by citizens. In Congo, spiritual patterns and carnal mystical powers are two closely related points ( Tshilemalema, 2002 ) . Each household frequently takes a peculiar animate being spirit as a representation of the full household. As a manner of portraying this belief, Congo citizens frequently raise totem or an carnal statue in their places. They, hence, believe that an single under any carnal spirit is protected from any evil spirit. In Congo, carnal liquors are used to mean presence of god amidst people ( Tshilemalema, 2002 ) . Congo faith is, therefore, characterized by usage of symbols to mean a specific spiritual pattern, action, or an event.

Monotheism is a spiritual pattern that is normally observed in Congo ( Pobee & A ; Mwaura, 2001 ) . For case, Nzambi faith, which is a monotheistic faith, dominates the Bakongo community in Congo ( Pobee & A ; Mwaura, 2001 ) . Nzambi, treated as a supernatural being, was believed to be the exclusive Godhead of the existence and was, therefore, regarded as a God ( Kaplan, 1986 ) . On the other manus, faith in United States does non use symbolism as a manner of detecting spiritual patterns ( Lincoln, 1999 ) . Christianity dominates this province and therefore, most spiritual patterns are done harmonizing to church philosophies. Compared to other developed states, dwellers of United States purely adhere to spiritual values. Religion in United States is a diverse establishment that includes assorted faith beliefs at important degrees ( Lincoln, 1999 ) .

The figure of spiritual motions is besides different in the two states. However, there are many spiritual motions in United States ( HuiHua, 2005 ) than in Congo. Majority of U.S. citizens are Christians accounting for about 76 per centum ( HuiHua, 2005 ) . The Christians in U.S. are largely within Catholic and Protestant denominations. Another 2nd largest spiritual group in United States is the non-Christians, who are Muslims, Buddhists, Judaists, or Hindus ( HuiHua, 2005 ) . As indicated by HuiHua ( 2005 ) , there is great fluctuation in the belief in God across the state. As supported by Lincoln ( 1999 ) , Southern State citizens, besides known as the Bible belt part, strongly believe in God than Western State inhabitants.

Native American Religion is, nevertheless, different from the stated spiritual groups ( Lincoln, 1999 ) . Beliefs and patterns in this faith are tied to American traditional life styles. Assorted religious ceremonials and rites are practiced by Native Americans as a manner of showing their religion a supernatural God they worship ( Lincoln, 1999 ) . These religious patterns besides reveal an person ‘s spiritual individuality. Leaderships of this faith are those who understand best American traditions, sooner the eldest in a society. Native American Church incorporates characteristics of Native religious life style and the usage of symbolic elements in Christianity ( Lincoln, 1999 ) .

Similarities in spiritual life in Congo and United States

One dramatic similarity is that both states grant freedom of worship to its citizens ( Lincoln, 1999 ; Kaplan, 1986 ) . This freedom has allowed extended variegation of spiritual patterns in the two states. Harmonizing to the fundamental law of the two provinces, every legal spiritual motion is respected. This freedom granted by the province is a show of how faith is of import to both U.S. and Congo citizens. In each of the two states, proportion of Christianity is larger than other spiritual motions ( HuiHua, 2005 ; Kaplan, 1986 ) . This high per centum is non merely due to freedom of worship in the two states, but besides due to extended runs by Christians to pull more trusters in the several states. Observation of Christian calendar events like the Easter and All Saints Day is common in the two states. Other spiritual motions in both states besides have calendar events, which they observe keenly. For case, Idd-ul-Fitr is an of import event in the Muslim community in both states.


Social life references issues refering with relationship between people in a peculiar societal set up. Religious life, on the other manus, describes a individual ‘s cardinal belief ( s ) on a certain supernatural being. It besides includes all patterns that a individual performs to demo this belief. Religious and societal life of a individual varies from one topographic point to another depending on societal affairs that contribute to determining of an person ‘s character. In the two states, United States and Congo, there is fluctuation in societal and spiritual lives of their citizens. Socially, there is difference in the figure of societal categories formed in both states, with two and three societal categories in Congo and U.S. severally. Concentration of societal comfortss and population distribution is besides different in both states. Parameters used in finding position of a individual and accordingly, regard accorded to a individual are besides different in the two states. However, there is similarity in intervention of adult females and division of labour in the two states. The two states show great differences in spiritual life in which, symbolic patterns and monotheism is common in Congo. Nevertheless, similarities of spiritual life in both states occur in observation of of import spiritual events every bit good as formation of assorted spiritual motions.


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