Developing one ‘s individuality is a womb-to-tomb procedure. The definition of self-identity, harmonizing to psychological science is the witting acknowledgment of the ego as holding a alone individuality. I chose to concentrate my research on the country of adolescent individuality, or young person between 12 and 19 old ages of age, because that is when so many immense determinations are made that impact a individual ‘s life and the way in which it is traveling.
Upon my research, I have discovered that this is an of all time germinating theory. There is so much research and information on this peculiar topic, that it could n’t perchance be covered in one paper. Many of the theoreticians build on each other. Henri Tajfel ‘s adeveloped societal individuality theory. Erik Erikson ‘s theory of psychosocial development is one of the best-known theories of personality ( Cherry, 2012 ) . And Urie Bronfenbrenner developed the ecological systems theory to explicate how everything in a kid and the kid ‘s environment affects how kids grow and develop. There are many other theoretician who have affected the manner we look at individuality every bit good. And there are many theoreticians in whom the above theoreticians have observed and built upon. Erikson ‘s theory has phases, much like Freud and Piaget. One theoretician who elaborated on Erikson ‘s theory was James Marcia.
Tajfel ‘s research consisted of two research lab experiments that focused on in-groups and out-groups to find the favoritism of out-groups and the built-in self-esteem encouragement the participants received when they awarded their ain groups, even though they were anon. , with the most money. He determined that there are three procedures used to measure others as “ us ” or “ them ” or in other words, in-groups and out-groups, and that these procedures take topographic point in a peculiar order. First is classification. We categorize objects in order to understand and place them, this includes our societal environment. We find things out about ourselves harmonizing to the classs we belong to. The 2nd phase is societal individuality. Once categorized to a group, each of us forms our individuality based on our belonging to the group and make an emotional bond. From at that place, we attach our self-pride to this group rank. The concluding phase is societal comparing. Once our group is formed and we have categorized ourselves, and developed an individuality attached to that group, we tend to compare our group with other groups. Our self-esteem in wrapped up in this group, so we need to do certain that we are viewed as favourable in the eyes of other groups. If we are non, so ill will and competition signifiers between groups to find the “ better ” group or groups.
Basically, we are contending for our individuality. This is particularly true for adolescents. There are so many groups that determine immature people ‘s individuality. Religion, race, gender, activities, etc. all play an of import function in how people define themselves.
The following theoretician is Erik Erikson. He based all of his work on instance surveies, and at times was criticized for his deficiency of formal research. Some felt that he lacked credibleness because of his deficiency of research, but Erikson based his stage-theory on what he had observed in his life every bit good as instance surveies. The development of self-importance individuality is one of the chief elements of Erikson ‘s psychosocial phase theory. Ego individuality is the thought that we develop a witting sense of ego through societal interaction. Due to new information and experiences that we get every twenty-four hours during our societal interactions with others, our self-importance individuality is invariably altering. Erikson besides felt that behaviours and actions were motivated by a sense of competency. Erikson believed that each phase can make competency or crisis, or a turning point in one ‘s development. Each quantitative phase presents its ain accomplishments and challenges. The phases are as follows, with a focal point on Identity versus confusion, but because his theory is built on phases, it is of import to advert the phases taking up to the stripling individuality phase. The first is Trust vs. Mistrust, because an baby is wholly dependent on their health professional, they build a sense of trust if they are decently cared for, or misgiving if they are neglected, rejected, or abused. The 2nd phase is Autonomy vs. Shame and Doubt. This phase refers to potty preparation and nutrient pick. When kids successfully complete this phase they either feel secure and confident or inadequate or uncertainty themselves. The 3rd phase is Inaugural V. Guilt. These are the preschool old ages when they begin to asseverate themselves and detect a sense of control and power over others. If successful they feel capable, if they fail they feel that sense of ego uncertainty and guilt. Stage four is Industry vs. Inferiority. A sense of pride begins to develop as kids recognize their achievements and abilities through their societal interactions. When kids are encouraged by their parents and instructors they develop a sense of competency and a belief in their abilities. This brings us to the phase of Identity vs. Confusion. This is the of import phase, at least every bit far as we are concerned. During their adolescent old ages, kids develop a sense of ego by researching their independency. There are several lending factors to the formation of individuality. As striplings enter puberty their cognitive accomplishments and physical abilities addition. When teens become more independent they tend to acquire involved in more vicinity, community and school activities. Erikson believed that these alterations make striplings get down to research their hereafter occupations, their relationships and their beliefs. Harmonizing to Erikson, individuality has been formed when a individual can measure themselves and their environment and links them together expressively. When a individual struggles with this individuality nexus, that is when the issues of function confusion occurs. Role confusion causes an single to oppugn their features, their sense of ego and their perceptual experiences of others. Due to altering physical, cognitive, and societal factors, about all striplings see some signifier of function confusion ( Kroger, 2004, as quoted by Sokol, 2009 ) .
Identity helps each of us to happen our topographic point in the universe. It provides us with a sense of belonging, a sense of ego, and gives us each a sense of way. Identity is what makes us travel in a peculiar way. Identity is what gives us ground to be. Erikson clearly believed that holding a solid sense of individuality is important to farther development. Without a true sense of individuality, striplings tend to take a life style that has negative effects, because they lack self regard or experience that they do n’t merit a better life.
The theoretician James Marcia, based on Erikson ‘s theory, developed four Identity Statuses of psychological individuality. His chief thought is that personal picks and their societal committednesss determine 1s individuality. It is of import to clear up that these are NOT phases, but statuses that can go on in any order or non at all. Marcia ‘s four positions are, foremost, Identity Diffusion, this is when an stripling does n’t experience like they have a pick in things refering to themselves, when in world, they merely have n’t made one, or is non willing at that clip to do a committedness to one pick or another. Second, is Identity Foreclosure, this is when an stripling is willing to fulfill others by perpetrating to certain functions, values, or programs for the hereafter. This is non an individuality crisis ; these persons are merely taking to conform to what others want for them. The 3rd position is Identity Moratorium, which is when the stripling is in a crisis, this is when an stripling is ready to do a pick, but has non committed to any of those picks yet. The concluding position is Identity Achievement, this is when an stripling has gone through an individuality crisis and has committed to a pick and developed a sense of individuality based on that pick.
We have all experienced this in our lives. There is non a individual grownup that can candidly state that they went through their full young person cognizing precisely who they were and who they were traveling to go. It is a procedure, a acquisition curve. I day-to-day responsibility filled with action and reaction. Every twenty-four hours adolescents, and grownups, have to reassess certain facets of their individuality bases on what plants and what does n’t work.
Our concluding theoretician is Bronfenbrenner, his theory is that every facet of life, every small piece of our being affects who we are. We are each in the center of a elephantine circle. Directly around us is our microsystem, this entails our households, school, everything we see and cover with day-to-day. Following is the exosystem, this is the pieces of one ‘s life out of their direct scope, such as parents work topographic point, extended household, vicinities, etc. The concluding circle is the macrosystem, this is where civilization and attitudes come into drama, for illustration, war, the economic system, and authorities. Although these things are outside the person ‘s personal circle, they are still affectional in modeling and determining adolescent individuality.
To sum up all of the research and theories above, it is safe to state that every aspect of one ‘s life has an impact on a individual ‘s individuality in one manner or another. Through their upbringing, civilization, societal functions, and environment, striplings develop their individuality. They learn to trust on those they can swear and construct perceptual experiences about the things that they know and the things that they do n’t cognize. Their cognitive abilities have reached a point in the stripling old ages where they can find for themselves their ain waies based on their ain positions and sentiments, even though much of their idea procedures are affected by the values that have been instilled in them. Parents and health professionals play a enormous function on faith, societal position, environment, instruction and hereafter. Teachers besides play a function in the development of a adolescent ‘s individuality. Through the usage of clear outlooks and positive congratulations, a instructor can increase their pupil ‘s self-pride. They besides have the ability to promote positive group picks through group undertakings and pupil consciousness. Teachers are besides powerful function theoretical accounts and can make a strong acquisition environment that encourages cognitive growing and can increase the desire for pupils to prosecute higher instruction. Teachers can do a difference in their pupil ‘s lives and assist them develop a strong sense of ego and individuality. The most of import thing a instructor can make is to cognize their pupils.
Cherry, K ( 2012 ) . Phases of psychosocialA development: Psychosocial development in
preschool, in-between Childhood, andA adolescence. Retrieved from hypertext transfer protocol: //psychology. about.com/od/ psychosocialtheories/a/psychosocial_2.htm
Feinstein, S. ( 2007 ) . Teaching the at-risk teenage encephalon. Retrieved from hypertext transfer protocol: //chapters. scarecrowpress.com/15/788/1578866 464ch1.pdf
Gilgun, J ( 1993 ) . Erik erikson and the usage of instance surveies. Retrieved from
hypertext transfer protocol: //www.scribd.com/doc/38414815/Erik-Erikson-Case-Study-Research
Marcia, J. E. , ( 1966 ) , Development and proof of self-importance individuality position, Journal of
Personality and Social Psychology 3, pp. 551-558. Retrieved from hypertext transfer protocol: //iws2.collin.edu/lstern/JamesMarcia.pdf
McLeod, S. A. ( 2008 ) . Social individuality theory. Retrieved from hypertext transfer protocol: //www.simply
Sokol, Justin T. ( 2009 ) “ Identity Development Throughout the Lifetime: An Examination of
Eriksonian Theory, ” Graduate Journal of Counseling Psychology: Vol. 1: Iss. 2, Article
14. Retrieved from hypertext transfer protocol: //epublications.marquette.edu/gjcp/vol1/iss2/14
Tahfel, H. ( 1970 ) . Experiments in intergroup favoritism. Scientific American, 223,
96-102 Retrieved from hypertext transfer protocol: //www.holah.karoo.net/tajfestudy.htm
Woolfolk, a. , Perry, N. ( 2012 ) . Child and adolescent development. Upper Saddle River, NJ:
Pearson Education Inc.