1. Black soils The chief part of black dirts is the Deccan tableland and its fringe extending from 8°45’to 26o north latitude and 68o to 83o45? east longitude. They are formed from Deccan basalt trap stones and occur in countries under the monsoon clime. largely of semi-arid and sub-humid types. The overall clime of black dirt part may be described as hot and dry summer. 40-100 centimeter rainfall per annum. mild to chair winters and one-year temperature ranges from 24-30o centigrade. average maximal temperature during April-May scopes from 36~42°C waterless average minimal temperature during winter scopes from 15-24° centigrade. Semi-arid to sub-humid. tropical to sub-tropical monsoon type clime with alternate prohibitionists and wet periods and calcification ( formation of Ca carbonate ) are favorable to the formation of black dirts.
The dirts are characterised by dark Grey to black coloring material with 35-60 % clay. impersonal to somewhat alkalic reaction. high puffiness and shrinking. malleability. deep clefts during summer and hapless position of organic affair. N and P. Impeded drainage and low permeableness are the major jobs. Black dirt. are divided into shallow black dirt of a deepness of 30-50 centimeter. medium black dirts of 50-120 centimeter and deep black dirts of more than 120 centimetres. The natural flora comprises dry deciduous species. viz dhak ( Butes frondoss ) . sisam ( Dalbergia sisu ) . neem ( Azadirachta indica ) and teak ( Tectona grandis ) .
Cotton. sugar cane. Indian potato. millets. maize. pulsations. false saffron are the common harvests grown on these dirts. Because of their built-in drainage job. they are prone to salt and sodicity under irrigated conditions unless proper drainage is ensured. Because of its high H2O retaining capacity. rainfed harvests like minor millets. pulsations like Equus caballus gm are veggies of different types and citrous fruit fruits can besides be grown. These dirts are besides known as regurs. nullah regadi ( a Telugu word significance black clay ) and black cotton dirts as cotton was the major harvest grown in these dirts.
2. Red soils These dirts are derived from granite. gneiss and other metamorphous stones. These dirts are formed under good drained status. The clime is semi-arid tropical with average one-year temperature of 25°C and average one-year rainfall from 75-100 centimeter. The dirts are higher textured. crumbly construction and contains low soluble salts. They are somewhat acidic to somewhat alkaline. good drained with moderate permeableness. They are by and large hapless in N. P. calcium hydroxide. humus etc. In this dirt. lime concretions and free carbonates are absent. The ruddy coloring material is due to the higher grade of hydration of the fericoxide in the dirts. On highlands. they are gravelly flaxen or stony and porous and light coloured on which nutrient harvests like bajra can be grown.
On the lower fields and vales. they are dark. coloured fertile loams. irrigated harvests like corn. wheat. pulsations. murphies. fruits. millets etc can be grown. These dirts have besides been found under forest flora. Sometimes they found along with black dirts ( side by side ) and besides xanthous dirts ( ruddy and xanthous dirts ) . Excessive gravelliness. surface crust formation and susceptibleness to eroding due to high inclines are some of the jobs in these dirts which can be overcome by following suited steps. Morphologically the ruddy dirts can be divided into ruddy loams which have a cloddy construction and clayey dirt and ruddy Earths with loose crumbly top dirt rich in sesquioxide type of minerals.
3. Laterites and lateritic dirts Laterite is a geological term and means literally a stone. The laterites and lateritic dirts have been slackly used in the same sense. The lateritic dirts are enriched with oxides of Fe and aluminum. under the conditions of high rainfall with alternate prohibitionists and wet periods. During rainfall silicon oxide is leached downwards and Fe and aluminum oxides remains in the top beds. Laterites are normally shallow and gravelly at higher lands. but are really deep loam to clay dirts in the vales where good Paddy harvests are produced. Higher landy dirts are hapless in food position where as lower degree dirts are dark and richer in foods and organic affair. All lateritic dirts are hapless in Ca. Mg. N. P and potassium hydroxide.
They are by and large good drained and porous. The dirt reaction is more on the acidic side. On laterites. as already mentioned. rice is grown at lower lifts and at higher lifts. tea. java. Peruvian bark. gum elastic and cashewnut can be grown under good dirt direction conditions. On the whole. laterites are hapless in birthrate and readily react to mucking and good cultivation. Based on the clime lateritic dirts are grouped into high rainfall countries with strongly and weakly expressed dry season and humid zones with marked dry & A ; wet periods.
4. Alluvial soils Alluvial dirts. cover the largest country in India ( about 7 lakh km2 ) and these are the most of import dirts from agricultural point of position. The chief characteristics of alluvial dirts have been derived as silt deposition laid down by the Indian river systems like the Indus. the Ganges. the Brahmaputra and the rivers like Narmada. Tapti: Mahanadi. Godavari. Krishna and Cauvery. These rivers carry the merchandises of weathering of stones representing the mountains and lodge them along their way as they flow down the field land towards the sea. Geologically. the alluvial sediment is divided into recent alluvial sediment which is known as Khadar and old alluvial sediment. as bhangar. The newer alluvial sediment is flaxen and light coloured whereas older alluvial sediment is more argillaceous. dark coloured and contains lime concretions. The dirts have a broad scope in dirt features viz. acid to alkaline sandy to clay. normal to saline. sodic and chalky. shoal to really deep. The clime ranges from waterless to humid sub-tropical. The undermentioned groupings of alluvial dirts may be recognised: alluvial dirts ( Khadar. bhangar and extremely chalky ) . deltaic alluvial sediment. coastal alluvial sediment. coastal littorals. chalky sierocomic and gray-brown dirts.
a. Alluvial soils The alluvial dirts happening in the Indo-Gangetic fields and the Brahmaputra vale screen a big country. The dirts are transported and deposited by the rivers from the parent stuff. The rivers are the Ganga. Jamuna. Brahmaputra and their feeders. The dirts are deep and difficult pans in the undersoil are chalky ( made of Ca carbonate ) and acidic. These are deficient in N. phosphoric and humus. but non in potassium hydroxide and calcium hydroxide. These dirts are fertile amongst all the dirts of India. They produce a broad assortment of harvests like rice. wheat. sugar cane. jute and murphy. They are distributed chiefly in the northern. north-western and north-eastern parts of our state.
b. Deltaic alluvial dirts They are formed from deposits carried by rivers and deposited in the oral cavities of rivers fall ining the sea. The deltas of the Ganga. Brahmaputra. Mahanadi. Godavari. Krishna and Cauvery are the most of import 1s. In Gujarat. the deltaic alluvial dirts which are flaxen loam to clay loam are locally called Goradu dirts. The Godavari and Krishna rivers pass through basaltic part holding black dirts and these dirts are dark and all right textured. The Cauvery delta dirts are significantly argillaceous and Ganga delta soils show high accretion of organic affair. as in the Sunderbans of West Bengal. due to swampy flora. These dirts are fertile and turn a broad assortment of harvests suited to climatic conditions.
c. Coastal alluvial sediment Soils developed on coastal alluvial sediment are found along. the sea seashores. Dirts are dark coloured. coarse textured and hapless in birthrate. Some dirts are saline due to the flood of sea H2O. Such dirts in the Konkan seashore of Maharashtra are called Khar dirts.
d. Coastal sands Sandy dirts occur conspicuously in the coastal country of Tanjavur territory of Tamil Nadu. along the Kerala seashore. Bapatla in Guntur distrjct of Andhra Pradesh and Puri territory in Orissa. If flaxen dirts are non saline. plantation harvests like coconut. Anacardium occidentale and casuarina can be taken up for cultivation.
Other dirts under alluvial sediment are chalky sierozomes and gray brown dirts. Calcareous sierozomes can be seen in the desertic part of Haryana and Punjab. The word ‘sierozem” denotes a group of dirts holding a brown-grey surface skyline with a sub-layer of carbonates which is developed under assorted shrub flora in a-temperate to chill. waterless clime. Grey-brown dirts as the name itself indicates its nature. can be found in. desert dirts of Rajasthan.
5. Desert soils In the north-western portion of India. desert dirts occur over an country of 0. 29 million hecta. RESs. which includes a major portion of Rajasthan. South of Haryana and Punjab and northern portion of Gujarat. Rainfall ranges from less than 10 centimeter to 50 centimeter. largely contributed during monsoon season. The part consists of sand dunes and rippling flaxen fields. The temperature government is really high throughout the twelvemonth and a upper limit of 50-60°C is recorded during summer. Due to high temperature organic-matter built up is really low. The dirts in the fields are largely derived from alluvial sediment and are pale brown to brown to yellow brown and all right sandy to loamy all right sand and are structureless. The clay contents low and presence of alkalic Earth carbonates is an of import characteristic. The nitrate N and P makes the desert dirts fertile and productive under proper wet supply. By increasing the H2O keeping capacity. the productiveness of the dirts can be increased which involves add-on of organic affair and clay.
6. Tarai soils The word “tarai” is a Hindu word. which means moist. Therefore. i is a moisture government holding high H2O tabular array. Tarai dirts are foot hii dirts and widen in strips of changing breadths at the pes of Himalayas in Jammu and Kashmir. Uttar-Pradesh. Bihar and West-Bengal. Soils under the natural conditions are thickly vegetated and boggy. Several types of grasses and trees from the native flora on remotion of which the dirts become extremely productive. The dirts are formed from the stuffs that are washed down by the eroding of mountains. They are alluvial beginning. High dirt wet content all through the twelvemonth consequences in elaborate flora dominated by tall grasses. They are impersonal to somewhat alkaline with important sums of organic affair. The texture varies from flaxen loam to silty loam. By and large. these dirts are fertile and by supplying proper drainage. the productiveness can be increased.