Muhammad’s mission. like many other Prophetss. was to name people to the worship and entry of the one true God. After his decease this mission was left to those whom followed his instructions. Those who truly followed in the Prophet’s pes stairss were proclaimed The Rightly Guided Caliphs. They were Abu Bakr. ‘Umar. Uthman and Ali. and were the Four Rightly Guided Caliphs. all of which were amongst the earliest and closest comrades of the Prophet Muhammad. Each of these Caliphs contributed greatly to the development of Islam every bit good as the contradictory outgrowth of the Sunni and Shi’ite split.
Abu Bakr was the first of the four Caliphs and ruled from 632-634 A. C. Abu Bakr was unfortunate to hold the load of leading placed on him during the most sensitive of Muslim times. Since the decease of Muhammad was rapidly distributing. many Muslims and folks decided to arise. declining to pay Zakat. Besides. many claimed that the prophethood of Muhammad had been placed on them. this merely made the tribes rebellion stronger. He had to cover with the menace of two powerful imperiums. the Roman Empire and the Persian. of which threatened Islamic province in Medina.
Abu Bakr himself led a charge against the revolting folks who attacked Medina and forced them to withdraw. Although the menace of the Roman ground forces still remained. Muhammad had already sent out an ground forces and when he died. Abu Bakr took over. With ferocious finding he said “I shall direct Usama’s ground forces on its manner as ordered by the Prophet. even if I am left entirely. ” Throughout the regulation of Abu Bakr. military personnels went from one triumph to another from assailing Romans. Another part of the Caliph was that he encouraged many of Muhammad’s friends to perpetrate his instructions to memory.
Memories all of which were written down to organize the Qu’ran. All together without his leading ; the people of Islamic religion would hold gone public violence. He helped reconstruct stableness to the Islamic people. On top of this. he contributed to the authorship of the Qu’ran and the maintaining of the people safe with all his military forces. During the Caliphate of Abu Bakr. ‘Umar was his closest helper and advisor. When Abu Bakr died on the 23rd of August 643 A. C. all the people of Medina swore commitment to ‘Umar who became the 2nd Caliph.
Upon taking charge ‘Uman spoke to the people with strong belief and said “O people. remain witting of God. forgive me my mistakes and assist me in my undertaking. Help me in implementing what is good and prohibiting what is evil. Rede me sing the duties that have been imposed upon me by God… ” ‘Umar did precisely that. He enforced the good and forbade immorality. Within the first old ages of his leading he completed Islam’s conquering of Mesopotamia. Syria. Egypt and Persia. During ‘Umar’s Caliphate. he was majorly responsible for the huge enlargement of Islam and was considered a extremely effectual military leader.
He besides commanded the building of the Mosque. besides know as the Dome of the Rock in Jerusalem. When ‘Umar returned to Medina from Hajj he raised his custodies and prayed. “O God! I am advanced in old ages. my castanetss are weary. my powers are worsening. and the people for whom I am responsible have spread far and broad. Summon me back to Thyself. my Godhead! ” Before his decease. ‘Umar went to a Mosque to take in supplication where he was attacked and stabbed several clip and fell under the bravos sticker. Before he died. the people asked him to put up his replacement. Umar appointed a commission of the Prophets followings to name the leader among themselves. ‘Umar died in the first hebdomad of Muharram. 24 A and Uthman was appointed as his replacement. Uthman became the Third Rightly Guided Caliph in 644 A. C. From all the Caliphs he was the one more involvement in faith than political relations. During his Caliphate he completed the digest of the Qur’an that still remains till today. Uthman ruled for 12 old ages. the first six old ages were marked to hold been filled with peace and repose.
The 2nd half of his regulation took a barbarous bend. Rebellion rose. the Jews and the Magians were taking advantage of the susurrations that were go throughing among the people and began cabaling against Uthman. Although with the size of his ground forces he could hold stopped all of them. he remembered the words of Muhammad. “Once the blade is bare among my followings. it will non be sheathed until the Last Day. ” Uthman didn’t want to be the first of the Caliphs to slop the blood of Muslims. so alternatively he tried to ground with them.
This barely did him any good and after a long conflict the Rebels broke into his place and murdered him. The last words Uthman spoke were that of the Qur’an 2:137. which speaks of God being all hearing and all knowing. He took his last breath on the Friday afternoon of June 656 A. C Ali. the cousin of the Prophet Muhammad himself was the concluding Caliph. At first he was really much reluctant to take the place but after he was urged by the other comrades of the Prophet he accepted.
Ali was responsible for the tradition of scholarship. although he excessively was assassinated. During his Caliphate internal tensenesss in the Muslim communities came to come up which lead to a period of civil war and political struggles which finally led to the split in Muslims commitments. This now known as the Sunni and Shi’ite split. The differences between Sunni and Shi’ia Muslims are non in the written word. but instead they have political differences centred around who should be recognised as the leader of the Muslim community.
The Sunni’s make up an estimation of 90 % of Muslims in the universe today and they believe that the leader of Muslims should be chosen among the posterities of the folk of Muhammad. the Quraish folk but non needfully from the household of Muhammad. The universe ‘Sunni’ itself average tradition and in bend agencies that they support the Caliphate of all the Four Rightly Guided Caliphs. The Shi’ites on the other manus merely do up 10 % of the Muslim population and the word Shi’ite means ‘the party of Ali’ and they believe that the leader of the Muslim community must be a descendant of the Prophet Muhammad. the official term of a blood comparative being ‘Imam’ .
This intending out of all the Caliphs they merely support the regulation of Ali. Every individual Caliph had an of import portion to play in the development of Islam and many people have them to thank for their faith and religion being every bit strong as it is today. Each of the Four Rightly Guided Caliphs contributed to the safety and growing of Islam. Although with the split of Muslims that consequence of the Sunni and Shi’ite split. everything was finally kept under control. If struggles do arise between the two. it will ne’er ensue in another civil war as they have learnt from the yesteryear of the desolations it can do.