Gender Role Conflict Among College Students

Relationship between Gender Role Conflict and Attitudes toward Seeking Professional Psychological Help among College Students. This survey aims to analyze the relationship between gender function struggle and attitudes toward seeking professional psychological aid among college pupils. A sum of 100 college pupils participated in the survey. The consequence shows that gender function struggle is significantly correlated with attitudes toward seeking professional psychological aid in negative way. Female pupils are found to hold significantly positive attitudes toward seeking professional psychological aid as compared to male pupils. As for the gender function struggle, the male pupils experience significantly more gender function struggle than female pupils. In footings of cultural difference, Malay pupils experience significantly more gender function struggle than Chinese pupils. Counselors need to happen ways to cut down the gender function struggle and to instill positive attitudes toward seeking professional psychological aid.

Relationship between Gender Role Conflict and Attitudes toward Seeking Professional Psychological Help among College Students

Gender function is the defined as “ behaviors, outlooks, and function sets that are defined by society as masculine or feminine ( O’Neil, 1981, as cited by Turkum, 2005 ) . In general, the cultural background, ethnicity, and societal interaction molds and reenforce the gender function. First, the cultural background plays a important function in determining the gender function ( Schaub & A ; Williams, 2007 ; Smith & A ; Carolina, 2008 ) . A male child is normally fed with cultural messages about maleness and masculine behaviour since he was immature. Hence, his perceptual experience and behaviours is shaped and structured harmonizing to those messages ( Smith & A ; Carolina, 2008 ) . For illustration, being athletic and accomplishments in playing athleticss are one of the messages that have inculcated into the male of being masculine and manfully ( Steinfeldt, Steinfeldt, England, & A ; Speight, 2009 ) .

Second, the cultural background has an of import impact on the perceptual experience on gender function. For illustration, Asiatic work forces are by and large known to be less emotional and affectional expressive due to the cultural upbringing. It is common that the Asiatic work forces restrain from stating “ I love you ” to their married womans. Contradictory, the Western civilizations demand the hubby to invariably show the love to their married womans.

Third, societal interaction among genders is another factor in modeling one ‘s perceptual experience of gender function ( Addis & A ; Mahalik, 2003 ; Schaub & A ; Williams, 2007 ; Steinfeldt et al. , 2009 ) . Peoples have created an interactive and cultural norm ( masculine civilization and feminine civilization ) among the different gender. They interact within the norm boundaries. The work forces are competitory, less emotional, and concentrate on accomplishment ( O’Neil et al. , 1986 ) . Traits like expressiveness, emotional, and relational oriented are considered feminine and weak. The work forces do masculine activities like athleticss that fulfill the demand of accomplishment and competition but do non necessitate them to be vulnerable emotionally. In short, the work forces are taught to be masculine by the cultural background and interaction procedure.

Traditionally, the adult females are taught to be feminine. However, in this modern classless society, the rise of adult females position induces the adult females assume similar gender function as the work forces ( Magovcevic & A ; Addis, 2005 ) . The traditional male sole traits such as being competitory, successful, keeping emotional look and calling oriented can be seen in many modern adult females today. It is common for adult females to be bread victor in the household. Movies and Television plans exalt adult females who are successful in their calling. Girls are inspired to be successful calling adult females and be independent from work forces. Hence, it can be concluded that adult females may presume the masculine gender function in the modern-day society.

In amount, both work forces and adult females may presume the masculine function. The masculine function emphasize on being competitory, successful, keeping emotional look. In the face of world, there are fortunes may set these people in struggle when covering with state of affairss that require them to be vulnerable emotionally. For illustration, seeking psychological aid is one of such state of affairss. Therefore, this research focuses on the gender function struggle and the attitudes toward professional psychological aid seeking.

Gender Role Conflict and the Help-Seeking Attitudes

The gender function struggle is defined as “ a psychological province where gender functions have negative effects or impact on a individual or others ” ( O’Neil, 1896, p.336 ) . It occurs when “ stiff, sexist, or restrictive gender functions result in limitation, devaluation, or misdemeanor of others or self ” ( O’Neil et al. , 1995, as cited by Steinfedlt et al. , 2009, p.5 ) .

The gender function struggle is frequently related with negative results. O’Neil ( 2008 ) summarized that gender function struggle is frequently related intrapersonal jobs ( e.g. depression, anxiousness, low ego regard, alexithymia, substance maltreatment ) and interpersonal jobs ( e.g. deficiency of interpersonal operation, debatable fond regard, low fathering and matrimonial satisfaction ) . In add-on, people who have high gender function struggle will hold negative perceptual experience on psychological jobs ( Magovcevic & A ; Addis, 2005 ) . They perceive it as nonnormative, ego-central, and stigmatizing.

Given that people with high gender function struggle are prone to hold psychological jobs aforementioned, the state of affairs become worsen as people with high gender function struggle have negative attitudes toward aid seeking ( Turkum, 2005 ) . The negative attitude is consistence “ across different ages, nationalities, races, and sexual orientations, and particular wellness fortunes ” ( O’Neil, 2008 p.396 ) . It hinders the destitute people to make out for aid. Therefore, gender function struggle plays a critical function in finding the willingness to seek professional psychological aid, whereby a individual will high gender function struggle is less likely to seek aid.

The gender function struggle besides influences one ‘s outlook about guidance ( Schaub & A ; Williams, 2007 ) . The high restrictive emotion work forces rely on the counsellor expertness and facilitative conditions ; the work forces with high success, power, and competition and struggle between work household relationships will put more personal committedness in the guidance procedure. Counselors need to be cognizant of the difference outlook arise from the gender function struggle and its effects on the effectivity of session.

Current survey

In chief intent of the research is to prove the relationship between gender function struggle and the attitudes toward seeking professional psychological aid. The research workers besides examined the gender difference and cultural difference in the gender function struggle and attitudes toward seeking professional psychological aid. The research workers hypothesized that: ( 1 ) there is important relationship between gender function struggle and the attitudes toward seeking professional psychological aid, ( 2 ) there is important difference in gender function struggle between male and female, ( 3 ) there is important difference in attitudes toward seeking professional psychological aid between male and female, ( 4 ) there is important difference in gender function struggle between Chinese and Malay, ( 5 ) there is important difference in attitudes toward seeking professional psychological aid between Chinese and Malay, ( 6 ) there is important difference in gender function struggle between Chinese male and Malay male, ( 7 ) there is important difference in attitudes toward seeking professional psychological aid between Chinese male and Malay male, ( 8 ) there is important difference in gender function struggle between Chinese female and Malay female, ( 9 ) there is important difference in attitudes toward seeking professional psychological aid between Chinese female and Malay female.

Method

Participants

The population in this research is the college pupils, who are in the World Religion Class of a private university in Nilai, Malaysia. All pupils in the population were recruited to take part in the research. There are entire of 100 respondents. The feature of the respondents is summarized in Table 1. The average age of the respondent is 19.44 old ages ( SD = 0.65 ) .

Table 1

Features of Respondents

Features

Chinese

Malay

Entire

Male

27

19

46

Female

38

16

54

Entire

65

35

100

Measures

Gender function struggle. The gender function struggle was measured by Gender Role Conflict Scale ( GRCS ) developed by O’Neil et Al. ( 1986 ) . It was ab initio designed to mensurate the male gender function struggles. To mensurate the female gender function struggles, some version was made by replacing the diction of “ work forces ” to “ adult females ” , despite that the content of the points are same for both gender ( Magovcevic & A ; Addis, 2005 ) . The GRCS consists of 37-items, with four factors: ( 1 ) success, power, and competition, ( 2 ) restrictive emotionalism, ( 3 ) restrictive affectionate behaviour, and ( 4 ) struggles between work and household dealingss. O’Neil ( 2008 ) defined each factor: ( 1 ) success, power, competition refers to “ personal attitudes about success pursued through competition and power ” ( p.367 ) , ( 2 ) restrictive emotionalism reflects one “ holding limitations and frights about showing one ‘s feeling every bit good as limitation in happening words to show basic emotion ” ( p.367 ) , ( 3 ) restrictive fond behaviour indicates “ limitations in showing one ‘s feelings and idea, and trouble touching with people of same gender ” ( p.367 ) , ( 4 ) struggle between work household relation refers to “ limitation in equilibrating work, school, and household dealingss ensuing in wellness jobs, overwork, emphasis, and a deficiency of leisure and relaxation ” ( p.367 ) .

The response format of GRCS is 6-point Likert graduated table, from 1 ( strongly disagree ) to 6 ( strongly agree ) . The possible scope of entire mark is from 37 to 222. A high mark indicates that the individual experience more gender function struggle and presume the masculine function. Previous researches found that the dependability of GRCS is high among the college pupils, with the high internal consistency and high test-retest dependability ( Lane & A ; Addis, 2005 ; O’Neil et al. , 1986 ; Pederson & A ; Vogel, 2007 ; Schaub & A ; Williams, 2007 ) . In this research, the internal consistence of the GRCS is high, as the entire graduated table with Cronbach ‘s alpha of.87, and the subscale scope from.75 to.82.

Attitudes toward Seeking Professional Psychology Help. The attitudes toward seeking professional psychological science aid was measured by Attitudes toward Seeking Professional Psychological Help Scale – Shortened Form ( ATSPPHS-SF ) developed by Fischer and Farina ( 1995, as appended in Elhai et al. , 2008 ) . It consists of 10 points. It was developed from the original graduated table with 29 points. The sawed-off signifier was used as it is easier to be administered and less noticeable ( Fisher & A ; Farina, 1995 ) . The response format is four-point graduated table, from 1 ( disagree ) to 4 ( agree ) . The negative points ( i.e. point – 2, 4, 8, 9, 10 ) were rearward coded for mark calculation. A high mark reflects positive attitudes, and therefore, more likely to seek professional aid in clip of demand. Previous research showed that the ATSPPHS-SF is of equal cogency and dependability for the college pupils ( Elhai et al. , 2008 ) . In this research, the internal consistence of the ATSPPHS-SF is high, with the Cronbach ‘s alpha of.78.

Table 2

Dependability of the Scale

Scale

Cronbach ‘s alpha

Gender Role Conflicts Scale

.87

1. success, power, competition

.82

2. restrictive emotionalism,

.75

3. restrictive affectionate behaviour

.82

4. struggles between work and household dealingss

.75

Attitudes Toward Seeking Professional Psychology Help Scale – Shortened Form

.78

Procedure

The respondents were recruited form the World Religions category of a private college in Nilai, Malaysia. They were given 30 proceedingss to finish the self-administrated questionnaire in a schoolroom scene. The ego administered questionnaire was used because it promises greater namelessness, the quickest manner of roll uping informations, comparatively save money, human resource, and clip as comparison with other measuring tools ( Rozumah & A ; Nor Sheereen, 2006 ) .

Analysis

The descriptive statistics is used to depict the information. The nonparametric illative statistics is used as the all pupils of the defined population were included in the research. The Spearman ‘s Rho Correlation is employed to prove the relationship between the gender function struggle and attitude towards seeking professional psychological aid. The Mann-Whitney U-test is employed to prove the mean rank difference in gender function struggle and attitude towards seeking professional psychological aid. The important degree of.05 was used for the determination devising procedure.

Consequence

Table 3 presents the descriptive statistic of the gender function struggle and attitude towards seeking professional psychological aid of the respondents. The respondents tend to hold more gender function struggle ( M = 135.84, SD = 21.03 ) and negative attitude towards seeking professional psychological aid ( M = 26.77, SD = 4.50 ) .

Table 3

Descriptive Statisticss for Gender Role Conflict and Attitude towards Seeking Professional Psychological Help

Variable

Minute

Soap

Mean

South dakota

Gender function struggle

82

188

135.84

21.03

Attitudes toward seeking professional psychological aid

14

38

26.77

4.50

Table 4 shows the Spearman Rho ‘s correlativity analysis between gender function struggle and attitudes toward seeking professional psychological aid. The consequence indicates gender function struggle is significantly correlated with attitude towards seeking professional psychological aid in a negative way ( r = -.26, P & lt ; .01 ) . The first research hypothesis is supported. When a individual has more gender function struggle, he tends to hold negative attitude towards seeking professional psychological aid. Further analysis was conducted to analyze the relationship of the four factors of gender function struggle with attitude towards seeking professional psychological aid. The consequence identified that a individual with high mark in the success, power and competition has negative attitude towards seeking professional psychological aid ( r = -.32, P & lt ; .01 ) . Similarly, a individual with high mark in the restrictive affectional behaviour has negative attitude towards seeking professional psychological aid ( r = -.26, P & lt ; .01 ) .

Table 4

Correlation between Gender Role Conflict and Attitude towards Seeking Professional Psychological Help

Spearman Rho ‘s Correlation, R

Variable

Attitude towards Seeking Professional Psychological Help

Entire Gender Role Conflict

-.26**

I. Success, power, competition

-.32**

two. Restrictive emotional

-.10

three. Restrictive fondness behavior

-.26**

four. Conflict between household work relation

-.02

Note. ** P & lt ; .01

Table 5 summarized the gender difference in gender function struggle and attitudes toward seeking professional psychological aid. The analysis shows that the male have more gender function struggle than female ( U = 596.00, P & lt ; .001 ) . The 2nd research hypothesis is supported. Specifically, the male are more restrictive in emotionalism ( U = 818.50, P & lt ; .01 ) and are more restrictive affectionate behaviour ( U = 221.50, P & lt ; .001 ) than the female.

Table 5

Gender Difference in Gender Role Conflict and Attitudes toward Seeking Professional Psychological Help

Variable

Mean Rank

U-value

Male

Female

Gender function struggle

64.54

38.54

596.00***

Attitudes toward seeking professional psychological aid

42.09

57.67

855.00**

Note. U-value = Mann-Whitney U-value, ** P & lt ; .01, *** P & lt ; .001

Table 6 present the cultural difference in gender function struggle and attitudes toward seeking professional psychological aid. The analysis shows that the Malay have more gender function struggle than Chinese ( U = 650.50, P & lt ; .001 ) . The 4th research hypothesis is supported. Specifically, the Malay stress more on success, power, and competition ( U = 726.50, P & lt ; .01 ) , are more restrictive in emotionalism ( U = 767.00, P & lt ; .01 ) and are more restrictive affectionate behaviour ( U = 746.50 P & lt ; .01 ) , as comparison to the Chinese.

Table 6

Ethic Difference in Gender Role Conflict and Attitudes toward Seeking Professional Psychological Help

Variable

Mean Rank

U-value

Chinese

Malay

Gender function struggle

43.01

64.41

650.50***

Attitudes toward seeking professional psychological aid

53.31

45.29

955.00

Note. U-value = Mann-Whitney U-value, *** P & lt ; .001

Table 7 present the cultural difference among the male for the gender function struggle and attitudes toward seeking professional psychological aid. The analysis shows that the Malay male have more gender function struggle than Chinese ( U = 167.00, P & lt ; .05 ) . The 6th research hypothesis is supported. Specifically, the Malay male are more restrictive in their fond behaviour ( U = 130.00 P & lt ; .01 ) , as comparison to the Chinese male.

Table 7

Ethic Difference in Gender Role Conflict and Attitudes toward Seeking Professional Psychological Help among Male Respondents

Variable

Mean Rank of Male

U-value

Chinese

Malay

Gender function struggle

20.19

28.21

167.00*

Attitudes toward seeking professional psychological aid

24.61

21.92

226.50

Note. U-value = Mann-Whitney U-value, * P & lt ; .05

Table 8 present the cultural difference among the female for the gender function struggle and attitudes toward seeking professional psychological aid. The analysis shows that the Malay female have more gender function struggle than Chinese female ( U = 154.00, P & lt ; .01 ) . The 8th research hypothesis is supported. Specifically, the Malay female are more emphasize on success, power, and competition ( U = 171.00, P & lt ; .05 ) , and are more restrictive in emotionalism ( U = 152.50, P & lt ; .01 ) as comparison to the Chinese female.

Table 8

Ethic Difference in Gender Role Conflict and Attitudes toward Seeking Professional Psychological Help among Female Respondents

Variable

Mean Rank of female

U-value

Chinese

Malay

Gender function struggle

23.55

36.88

154.00**

Attitudes toward seeking professional psychological aid

28.51

25.09

265.50

Note. U-value = Mann-Whitney U-value, ** P & lt ; .01

Discussion

The consequence of the research indicated a important negative relationship between gender function struggle and attitudes toward seeking professional psychological aid. One who experiences more gender function struggle tends to has negative attitudes toward seeking professional psychological aid. This is consistency with the literature that linked the masculine function with negative aid seeking attitudes ( Smith et al. , 2008 ) . The masculine function such as high sense of success and power additions the stigmatisation of aid seeking ( Pederson & A ; Vogel, 2007 ; Steinfeldt et al. , 2009 ) . On the other manus, the masculine function of restrictive emotionalism and affectional behaviour look increases the revelation hurt in the guidance procedure ( Pederson & A ; Vogel, 2007 ) . The stigmatisation and revelation hurt constitute to the negative attitudes toward seeking professional psychological aid among those with high gender function struggle.

The analysis revealed that the attitudes toward seeking professional psychological aid is significantly differed by gender. The adult females have more positive attitudes toward aid seeking than the work forces. The consequence is consistency with the literatures ( Lane & A ; Addis, 2005 ; Turkum, 2005 ) . The gender difference is chiefly due to the gender function socialisation, whereby the adult females are more likely to show themselves, but non the work forces. It is consider normal for adult females to seek aid as they are normally labeled as the emotional vulnerable. The work forces have negative attitudes in aid seeking as a effect of the traditional masculine gender function aforementioned.

In term of the gender function struggle, it was found that the work forces have more gender function struggle than the adult females. This is consistency with the old findings ( Magovcevic & A ; Addis ) and the theoretical account of gender function that highlighted that the work forces ‘s fright of being feminine ( O’Neil et al. , 1986 ) . As for the cultural difference, consequence shows that the Malay pupils experience more gender function struggle than the Chinese pupils. Thereby the Malay male and Malay female have more gender function struggle than the Chinese male and Chinese female severally. The consequence is consistency with the cultural difference which was found in the American population ( Lane & A ; Addis, 2005 ) . The cultural differences support the impression that ethnicity is one of the importance cultural influences. In general, the Chinese and Malay have diverse civilization ( e.g. values, faiths, social-economic position, and educational degree ) and it is believed that such diverseness that contribute to the cultural difference in the gender function struggle.

Decision

In decision, the research supported six from the nine research hypotheses proposed. The gender function struggle is correlated with negative attitudes toward seeking professional psychological aid. The work forces see more gender function struggle and negative attitudes toward help-seeking than the adult females. The Malay people experience more gender function struggles than the Chinese people. Hence, the Malay work forces experience more gender function struggles than the Chinese work forces ; the Malay adult females experience more gender function struggle than Chinese adult females.

Deduction

The findings of the research have important deductions for the guidance profession. First, the counsellors need to cut down the gender function struggle of the pupils. The counsellors can carry on the workshop on how to be more emotionally and affectively expressive particularly among the work forces and Malay populations. Besides, the counsellors can trade name or advance the guidance services via untraditional guidance booklet as suggested by Robertson and Fitzgerald ( 1992, as cited by O’Neil, 2008 ) . This will assist the possible clients acknowledge they are worthy and in-charge of their life and the sense of success, power, and competition are non threatened.

Second, the counsellors need to instill the positive attitudes towards seeking professional psychological aid. Researchers suggest that the consciousness run of the guidance service to be conducted to clear up some of the misperception about the profession. In add-on, the counsellors need to be more originative in supplying the alternate psychological aid such as psychoeducational plan, workshop, and seminar ( Pederson & A ; Vogel, 2007 ) . Besides, the theoretical attacks that focus more on the thought and behaviours, such as cognitive behavioural therapy and rational affectional behavioural therapy, may sound more appropriate when covering with the clients with negative attitudes of psychological aid seeking ( O’Neil, 2008 ) . These options are believed to be less self- and societal stigmatisation as compared with reding service.

Restrictions

The research has two restrictions. First, the ‘relationship ‘ between the gender function struggle and the aid seeking attitudes may be due to common variables that are non identified or other possible variables which are non understudied in the research, for illustration self- and societal stigmatisation. Second, the research was conducted with a little population. The respondents included are in the first twelvemonth and 2nd twelvemonth of surveies and are may non stand for of the senior pupils. Readers should careful measure the similarities between the mark groups and the respondents in the research should they desire to generalise the determination to others groups. Third, the information was collected based on self-report questionnaire. There may consists of societal desirableness consequence and it is extremely rely on the respondent ‘s honestness.

Suggestions

First, the future research may be good to place the moderator and interceding variables of the relationship between gender function struggle and attitudes toward help-seeking ( mention O’Neil, 2008 for inside informations ) . Second, the hereafter research is valuable if it can retroflex the surveies in the secondary school. This is because the striplings are vulnerable and are in demand of the psychological in battling the life challenges during the developmental phase. Third, the future research can be enhanced by roll uping the information utilizing assorted method ( e.g. interview or concentrate group treatment ) to guarantee sufficient coverage of the breath and deepness of the research.

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