This paper explores and examines how lovingness is defined. A cardinal accent is placed upon theoretical models of human caring developed by a figure of bookmans in the field of nursing and the societal scientific disciplines. In peculiar, the espoused theory of Jean Watson is critically compared and analyzed. Within this geographic expedition to specify lovingness, the position through which each theoretician views the construct of caring presented by Watson will go more apparent, supplying the nurse with a greater deepness and comprehensiveness of cognition that can be straight applied to pattern.
Jean Watson-Human Science and Human Care: A Theory of Nursing
In maintaining with so many other nursing theory texts, nursing is viewed in an idealised signifier, as it ought to be, instead than as it really is. The nature of human life is explicated and personhood is linked to the impression that one ‘s psyche possesses a organic structure that is non confined by nonsubjective infinite and clip, and this belief demands that a great trade of awe be given to the individual.
The ends for the theory ideals are: mental and religious growing for ego and others, happening significance in one ‘s ain life, and happening interior power and control, and potentiating cases of transcendency and self-healing. It seems we have entered the age of transpersonal lovingness where being carative is cardinal.
The human scientific discipline position, on the face of it, is appealing. It is interesting that what Watson suggestions as a new manner of seeing nursing is merely an application of methods used in anthropology and other societal scientific disciplines. It is argued that theory in nursing is best generated by qualitative methods and whilst in understanding with this contention, in topographic points positions are unnecessarily polarized between what Watson calls the traditional and the human scientific disciplines attack.
The Theory of Human Caring is considered a caring scientific discipline that includes the humanistic disciplines, scientific disciplines, and humanistic disciplines ; a position that is “ grounded in a relational ontology of being-in-relation and a universe position of integrity and connection of All ” ( Watson, 2007, p. 1 ) . Caring scientific discipline probes ( Watson, 2007 ) encompass reflective, subjective, and interpretative enquiries every bit good as those that are in the objective-empirical kingdom. Furthermore, caring scientific discipline includes philosophical, ethical, ontological, and historical enquiry and the survey thereof.
Watson ( 1979 ) commented that the scientific discipline of caring in nursing is built on two basic premises. The initial premiss of this theory, centres on lovingness ( and nursing ) and its omnipresent being, in every society throughout history. Each society has had persons who have cared for others. Watson commented that this caring attitude is non genetically transmitted from coevals to coevals ; it is culturally transmitted by the profession as a agency of get bying with its alone environment. Watson stated, “ Nursing has ever held a caring stance in respect to other human existences ” ( Watson, 1979, p. 8 ) . The 2nd of Watson ‘s premises explores the disagreement that occurs between theory and pattern, ensuing in a disjuncture between scientific and humanistic ideals of the nursing profession. Watson ‘s theoretical theoretical account of caring includes seven basic premises. The pattern of nursing calls for the professional nurse to continually intrench him/herself in a humanistic values system ( Watson, 1979 ) . Watson believed it is imperative that this humanistic value system is combined with the scientific cognition foundation that is needed to the nurse ‘s actions. This combination of humanistic-scientific values and cognition map as the underpinnings of the scientific discipline of caring. Caring scientific discipline integrates an array of multiple epistemic attacks to inquiry, which include both empirical and clinical constituents. Theoretical enquiry transcends clinical and empirical boundaries to include a motion toward geographic expedition into other multiple ways of cognizing. These include metaphysical-physical, poetic, narrative, kinaesthetic, intentionality, personal-intuitive, germinating consciousness, aesthetic, and moral-ethical tracts of knowing.
Cohen ( 1991 ) asserted that Watson ‘s Model of Human Care is a direct consequence of the theoretician ‘s existential-phenomenological position, incorporated with personal values. Harmonizing to Cohen, these elements are clearly reflected in Watson ‘s premises, promoting a dimension of spiritualty to one ‘s life, therefore breeding a possible for growing and transmutation. Furthermore, Cohen articulated a profound regard and respect “ for individual and human life, freedom of pick, and the importance of an inter-subjective interpersonal relationship between the patient and the nurse ” ( Cohen, 1991, p. 904 ) . It is within this contextual model that Watson postulated her 10 carative factors, which were formulated for usage as an intercession in nursing state of affairss affecting the human attention procedure ( Cohen, 1991 ) .
There are 10 chief carative factors ( Watson, 1979 ) that purpose to put up a base for the survey and credence of nursing as a scientific discipline of caring. These factors include the ‘arrangement of a humane value set ; the embedding of belief and hope ; the development of compassion to one ‘s ego and to others ; the betterment of a relationship with aid and trust embedded for others ; the methodical usage of the systematic job resolution technique for doing determinations ; the encouragement of interpersonal lessons and sermon ; the judicial admission for a helpful, defensive, and ( or ) remedial psychological, bodily, socio-cultural, and spiritual ambiance ; support with the satisfaction of single demands ; and to let being of phenomenological elements ( Watson J. , 1979 ) .
Fagermoen ( 1999 ) discussed Watson ‘s transpersonal lovingness theory, recommending the construct of caring as a philosophical focal point for analysis. Harmonizing to Fagermoen, Watson ‘s description of caring appears to be congruous to Noddings ‘ representation of lovingness, which is viewed as a “ foundational and relational value ” ( Fagermoen, 1999, p. 149 ) . Watson ‘s Transpersonal Caring Theory besides represents a moral ideal model ( Swanson, 1999 ) . Harmonizing to Morse, Bottorff, Morse, Bottorff, Neander, & A ; Solberg ( 1991 ) suggest that, Watson ‘s theory is rooted in “ common, mutual, and synergistic experiences directed toward the saving of humanity ” ( Morse, Bottorff, Neander, & A ; Solberg, 1991, p. 123 ) . Boykin, Schoenhofer, Baldwin, & A ; McCarthy ( 2005 ) likewise commented that “ Watson ‘s theory of human attention proposes that caring might transform health care and continue human self-respect in the health care system ” ( Boykin, Schoenhofer, Baldwin, & A ; McCarthy, 2005, p. 50 ) . Fagermoen besides articulated that Watson described caring as a “ feature of the nurse ; as an attack ; and as a personal response, as nurse ‘s Acts of the Apostless or behaviour on behalf of the patient ” ( p. 150 ) .
Watson ‘s ( 2007 ) Theory of Human Caring evolved as her position of the lovingness procedure and the scientific discipline of caring expanded. Watson ‘s theoretical account ( Leininger, 2007 ) demonstrated the interrelatedness that exists between the patient and the nurse at the occasion where transpersonal lovingness occurs, thereby organizing a procedure of caring from one homo being to another. Reiss applied Watson ‘s theory to the quality of nursing attention, noticing “ nursing attention should analyze the interaction of nurse and patient during the lovingness procedure ” ( Leininger, 2007, p. 12 ) .
Harmonizing to Coffman ( 2006 ) , the cardinal nature of the Theory of Transpersonal Caring is “ reliable lovingness for the intent of continuing self-respect and the integrity of humanity ” ( Coffman, 2006, p. 405 ) . Watson envisioned her theory as an ethic or worldview, through which the profession of nursing could understand its traditions grounded in rules of “ wellness and healing ” ( Coffman, 2006, p. 406 ) . As such, Watson considered caring to be independent of bring arounding. The cognition and pattern necessary for a subject embracing a caring-healing model necessitate a synthesis of constituents from the humanistic disciplines and humanistic disciplines, along with an spread outing human scientific discipline that takes into history the convergence of both. Coffman maintained that Watson ‘s theory “ calls for nursing to retain a sense of the sacred lovingness for the ‘body physical ‘ as a human manifestation of a soul-interconnected and in harmoniousness with the universe and cosmopolitan consciousness ” ( Coffman, 2006, p. 406 ) .
Fagermoen ( 1999 ) discussed the development of Watson ‘s theory over the past several decennaries, situating that it is clear that the patient-nurse relationship is soon viewed through a religious and metaphysical lens. The carative factors that one time provided the structural foundation for nursing phenomena have been transformed by Watson into a “ philosophical foundation from which nurses ( and others ) can develop a caring-healing relationship ” ( Fagermoen, 1999, p. 151 ) .
Nelson ( 2006 ) discussed the development of Watson ‘s theory reflecting a mechanism for nursing to travel beyond a “ biomedical/natural scientific discipline theoretical account to a postmodern/human scientific discipline position ” ( Nelson, 2006, p. 406 ) . Nelson discussed Watson ‘s most recent work, which places health care and the profession of nursing well “ into the mid-twenty-first century ” ( Nelson, 2006, p. 93 ) .
The theory of nursing provided by Jean Watson is surely an of import portion of the whole nursing profession. There are no evident failings of the theory besides the fact that it puts to much accent on nurse-patient relationship. The overall theory of nursing by Jean Watson is really utile for nurses and can assist them take better attention of the patient. The theory besides provides an account of how nurses can keep their self-esteem and self-respect which is really of import. The strongest point of the theory is that it gives measure which can be used to actuate nurses to develop an honest relationship with the patient and assist them mend. All the suggestions made by Watson are really practical and can be applied by everyone in the profession of nursing. It will assist a batch in the starting old ages of the professional development as a nurse practician and aid in constructing a strong and honest relationship with patients.
It will non be incorrect to accept this model which reflects that Watson aspired to convey to fruition a theoretical account where lovingness and mending rise beyond the restrictions and restraints of Western medical specialty. Alternatively of a medical system where remedy is defined by wash uping all options, irrespective of cost, Watson ‘s attack emphasized the arrangement of lovingness and healing within a new paradigm that fosters a working relationship between engineering, world, and the broader existence.