Iran’s capital is Tehran. which is besides the largest metropolis and acts as a centre for the commercial. industrial. administrative. educational activities. Apart from Tehran. there are other metropoliss like Esfahan. Mashhad. Tabriz. Shiraz. Ahwaz. etc. It was estimated in 2002 that the population of Iran was about 66. 622. 704. which was about dual than that of 1975 population. The population of Iran is made up of legion cultural groups ; Persians being the dominant and largest group. who have migrated from Central Asia to Iran in the beginning of the seventh century BC set uping the first Persian Empire manner back in 550 BC. they include Gilaki. Mazandarani.
There are several other cultural groups such as the Kurds and the Lurs. The official linguistic communication of Iran is Modern Persian. which is derived from an ancient literary Iranian linguistic communication. which was written in the Pahlavi book ; but in the seventh century. after the Arab conquering a new signifier written in the Arabic book developed during the 9th and tenth centuries ; which formed the footing for the Modern Persian linguistic communication used today. The official faith of Iran has been Jafari Shia Islam since the sixteenth century about 93 % of all Iranians follows Shia Islam. largely of the Jafari group.
In 1979 Iran’s fundamental law has assigned of import political leading functions in the authorities to the Shia clergy. Personal behavior and group behavior endurance of cultural values such as duties to extended household. cordial reception toward invitees. and endeavoring to move morally far predated the Islamic conquering of the seventh century and continued to act upon the Persian civilization. In1979 with spiritual rhetoric revolution it was to a great extent imbued. The leaders excluding different signifiers of amusement activities such as casinos. cabarets and dance halls. films having nakedness or sexual subjects. and dad and stone musical genres.
In malice of economic growing. strong Shia resistance led by Ayatollah Khomeini against the Mohammed Reza Shah has brought Iran closer to the state of affairs of civil war ; which was the beginning of Persian Revolution ensuing in the going of Shah from Iran on Jan. 16. 1979. Finally on April 1. Ayatollah Khomeini declared an Islamic democracy with a new Fundamental law reflecting his ideals of Muslim authorities. He besides became Iran’s supreme religious leader ( Valy-e-Faqih ) . As a effect. many presentations were held to demo dissent to the new regulations. like utmost ordinances on the codification of frock of adult females.
Iran’s Education system: In 1906 after the country’s first fundamental law was drafted. public primary instruction was introduced in Iran. chiefly in urban system. bit by bit spread outing. but did non included secondary instruction ( until 1925 ) . During 1979 Islamic revolution. registration of merely 60 % primary school age kids. and less than 50 % of secondary school age. has taken topographic point in the public schools of Iran ; adult literacy rate accounting merely to 48 % . The reform in 1960 is known as the White revolution and the reform in 1979 is known as the Islamic revolution.
After the revolution. a reform in instruction system was brought up to strengthen the state through developing instruction. Education was included in the high precedence list of the authorities. concentrating on plans like grownup literacy. buildings of new schools. and enlargement of public colleges and other higher instruction institutes. As a consequence of that the literacy rate had reached for all Iranians aged 15 and older to 94. 6 per centum by the twelvemonth 2001 ; higher for males ( 96. 6 per centum ) than for females ( 92. 5 per centum ) ; and besides higher in metropoliss than in rural countries. Compulsory Education is made for kids between the ages 6 to11.
Every small town dwelling at least a primary school. by the enlargement of both public and private instruction system ; and in 1996. 89. 6 % of primary school-aged kids and 74. 2 % of secondary school-aged children’s registration in schools has taken topographic point. But dropouts are still high in the rural countries. Improvement in the educational chances for misss after the revolution has taken topographic point but the dropout rate is still higher for misss which can be apparent from the fact that 87 % of eligible age of misss though accompanied primary school. merely 69 % per centum attended secondary school.
More than 30 tuition-free public universities apart from many other institutes of higher acquisition including medical universities. teacher developing supplying colleges. agricultural colleges. etc. are present in Iran. But up to 1996 merely 17 % Iranians of relevant age were enrolled in higher acquisition establishments. The major centre for higher instruction is Tehran. with more than 15 universities along with legion colleges and institutes. Additionally. there are other Universities located in Hamedan. Esfahan. Shiraz. and Tabriz.
Besides. Islamic Free University that has been involved in the development of campuses in the metropoliss throughout Iran since its constitution in the late eightiess and a private system of higher instruction dwelling of theological colleges. The figure of immature Persian adult females acquiring admitted in to the universities has been raised dramatically in the recent old ages. More than 60 percent adult females entries have been registered in the Universities. merely in the last five old ages in Iran that is a surprising development for the Islamic Republic of Iran.
Education has a strong societal value for the Iran’s adult females. harmonizing to experts who observe it as a manner to accomplish greater freedom. But some Persian functionaries do still look of concern about the tendency. This turning tendency of addition in figure of the immature adult females in Universities of Iran is regarded as a phenomenon in the male dominated society. University surveies are used as a agency to go forth place. delay of matrimonies. gaining greater freedom and societal regard by the Persian adult females.
Harmonizing to Dr. Said Peyvandi. a Paris-based professor. sardonically. after the 1979 revolution and the country’s Islamization educational establishments the misss from traditional or conservative households began to travel to school this may be due to the ground that the traditional households who would non direct their misss to school earlier. due to presence of work forces instructors or stating that the school was non Islamic has started directing them to school. As a consequence the misss took the maximal advantage from the schools’ Islamization. and besides warranting their presence out of the place.
This turning figure of female university alumnuss started to impact on Iran’s labour market already. The adult females go toing the higher instruction in Iran has been increased since 1989. Women come ining into a figure of professions. public every bit good as private sectors ; and besides taking an active portion in the concern universe presently doing up to 10 % of the work force. About a 3rd of the adult females who were working were laid off by the new government in the earlier old ages of the revolution but now. Persian adult females are returning as mill applied scientists and specializers. alternatively of those female office workers and secretaries.
Which really. is doing an inflow of female specializers in Iran’s labour market. who can replace work forces. A labour force made up of adult females specializers can be seen in Iran soon that ne’er existed in Persian history. Harmonizing to the pull offing manager of an educational and cultural magazine ‘Lowh’ Mohammad Ghaed. the rise of many Persian adult females to exceed professional places that were antecedently dominated by work forces is observed ; showing a common scene such as adult females at the caput of an office or a bank where they are capable of giving orders to their subsidiaries including work forces.
Iran’s household constructions are besides showing the alteration raising the mean matrimony. autumn in the birth rate. etc. Which are considered as a direct consequence of the turning figure of adult females prosecuting university instruction doing the betterment in conditions for adult females in Iran ; harmonizing to Peyvandi. Sing the greater societal demands from adult females some concerns are raised particularly by the conservativists who argue that the displacement represents a danger to traditional moralss.
Recently a quota system was proposed aimed at restricting the figure of adult females inscribing in classs like medical specialty. where predomination of female pupils can be seen ; by The Education Ministry. Some conservativists and reformers are in test to scale back the women’s overall entree to higher instruction in Iran as it is ensuing in the liberalisation of adult females. Therefore they are besides utilizing economic alibis. seeking to enforce some limitations. are even nearing for Torahs in order to restrict the admittance of adult females to universities.
In recent old ages Persian adult females have made many great accomplishments but a larger portion of society is still non ready to suit them. Over the last 10-15 old ages the job of unemployment has worsened both in work forces every bit good as adult females. consequencely. there are no occupations for university alumnuss. Social issues like the figure of households with one-year incomes below the poorness line have been reduced from 47 % to 19 % during1979 – 1996 ; yet poorness continues to be a major job of the society.
Measures like subsidies for nutrient. fuel. and public-service corporations to back up low-income households have been taken up by the Govt. O decrease the impact of poorness. Inadequate Health attention services in rural countries. widespread usage of illegal drugs for diversion. particularly among immature people are some of concerns for the society. Assorted public societal services including national wellness insurance plan – supplying free or low-priced wellness attention in small town clinics or metropolis infirmaries that are run by the authorities ; supplying pensions to the retired employees. subsister benefits to widows’ of Veterans killed in action or deceased retired persons. disablement payments. etc are traveling on successfully.
Reading Lolita in Tehran: One of the Novels. ‘Reading Lolita in Tehran: A Memoir in Books’ reflects the life of the storyteller Nafisi. her personal and rational events in Iran after the revolution ; she besides narrates the dream of revolution among the Iranians and how that was shattered harmonizing to her. She besides indirectly condemns the lowering of matrimony age for misss to nine old ages by the Islamic government. which took power in 1979 by mentioning to the incidence of a in-between aged adult male going sexually obsessed with a 12 twelvemonth old pubescent miss.
It besides mentions her refusal to have on veil doing her dismissal from the university of Tehran in 1980. Though she criticized the limitation of freedom in the Persian government. she besides called for self-criticism in her address at the National book festival in 2004. 1 has to see what he / she ( people ) has done to make a peculiar state of affairs alternatively of faulting entirely on the Islamic government.