K-12 Basic Education Program: Bane Or Boon For National Development? Essay

I. Introduction

Our Philipppine Constitution strongly mandates the right of all citizens to quality instruction at all degrees. Article XIV. Section 1. explicitly provides: “The State shall protect and advance the right of all citizens to quality instruction at all degrees. ” Due to this the biggest budget is given to the Department of Education. Despite these constitutional warrants. current public presentation indexs showed a blue image of the quality of instruction in the state. Engagement rates have worsened. dropout rates remain high and the Philippines continues to execute ill in both national and international appraisal trials. As stated by the Senate Education Planning Office ( SEPO ) published June 11. 2012. it says that. despite attempts by the authorities to do basic instruction accessible to all. deficiency of entree to quality instruction remains a major policy concern. The Philippines. a signer to the Millennium Declaration. has committed to accomplish the end of 100 percent net registration rate by 2015. However. there is a low chance that this mark will be met given the current tendency.

Harmonizing to the Department of Education ( DepEd ) . the engorged course of study is partially to fault for this black state of affairs. The DepEd claimed that coercing in 10 old ages a course of study that is learned by the remainder of the universe in 12 old ages has been rather a challenge for both Filipino instructors and pupils. This merely means that the Philippines is discerning that aims of the Philipppine Education in footings of handiness to quality instruction in order to vie with world-wide demand wouldn’t be achieved. This therefore is the ground why it has to look for steps of meeting outlooks. Based from the SEPO study. entree to instruction is besides unequal. with the hapless holding significantly lower engagement rates than the non-poor. In 2007. the non-poor had an simple engagement rate of 91. 8 per centum. while for the hapless. it was merely 85. 9 per centum. The disparity worsened in the secondary degree when the engagement rate of the hapless dived to 51. 4 per centum as against the non-poor’s 76. 5 per centum.

Looking at the gender dimension. male childs have lower engagement rates than misss in all twelvemonth degree. Net simple engagement rates have even declined from 90. 1 per centum in 2002 to 88. 1 per centum in 2010. Fewer kids of school age proceed to high school and an even smaller figure pursue college instruction. Consequences of the 2008 Functional Literacy. Education and Mass Media Survey ( FLEMMS ) showed that out-ofschool young person with ages 6 to 15 old ages old do non go to school chiefly because: ( 1 ) they lack personal involvement ( 35. 0 % ) . ( 2 ) they find the cost of instruction high ( 18. 7 % ) . and ( 3 ) they consider themselves excessively immature to travel to school ( 16. 2 % ) . It should be noted that as the age cohort gets older ( 16 to 24 old ages old ) . the demand to look for work and the high cost of instruction become the major factors for non traveling to school.

The hapless quality of instruction is besides reflected in the country’s low tonss in national appraisal trials. Although average per centum tonss ( MPS ) in the National Achievement Test ( NAT ) have by and large improved in Net simple engagement rate is defined as the part of the figure right answered points and the entire figure of test inquiries. The NAT is an one-year scrutiny administered to public and private school pupils throughout the state to find their achievement degree. strengths and failings in cardinal capable countries.

As a response to this issue. the DepEd was forcing for the transition of a jurisprudence. Republic Act No. 10533. officially signed by President Benigno Aquino last May 15. 2013 otherwise known as Enhanced Basic Education Act of 2013 or the K to 12 Basic Education Programme. a strategy that took at least five old ages to eventually implement. In other words the uninterrupted impairment of the quality of instruction in the Philippines has prompted the DepEd to force for such execution of the K to 12 plan.

The inquiry of whether it be a curse or a blessing?

In the recent times even at this point in clip that the execution of K-12 has commenced a het argument and debate particularly among those affected groups on whether the K-12 execution as a major educational reform could take to betterments ( a blessing ) or merely to worsen the present province of instruction in the state ( a curse ) .


Looking at the state of affairs of our educational system. there is truly a demand for a drastic reform in order to hold it truly transformed into one which would truly be antiphonal to the aim of bring forthing globally competent alumnuss and work out the perrenial jobs of the Philippine Educational System. “ [ Sa K-12 ] tinitiyak nating sapat at kapaki-pakinabang Air National Guard kasanayang naibabahagi SA ating mga mag-aaral ( With K-12 we are doing certain that equal and utile accomplishments are being imparted to our pupils ) . ” the President says. The extra two old ages after 4th twelvemonth high school are intended to further hone the accomplishments and endowments of pupils for their chosen career way in humanistic disciplines and athleticss. proficient vocational. entrepreneurship or third instruction Many schools in the state have to clasp up to get by with the demands as they have already been viing globally even before the transition of the jurisprudence.

And in order to run into the planetary demands. the schools have to confront the challenges that come with the K to 12 plan execution. Now that it has become a jurisprudence. schools all over the state have to poise for the execution and the effects of the K to 12 plan. However. there are excessively many contentions and congratulationss that hound this new jurisprudence. Why is K to 12 needed? ( Adapted from DepEd Policy Briefs. SEPO ) 1. To decongest the course of study. Harmonizing to the DepEd. while the K to 12is non the solution to all the ailments of the Philippine educational system. it will turn to one of its chief weaknesses—the congested course of study. The DepEd explained that the pupils are hardpressed to larn in 10 old ages a course of study that is really designed for 12 old ages in other states. Hence. Filipino pupils are non able to accomplish comprehension and command. peculiarly of nucleus.

Possibly the most damnatory cogent evidence of this is the consequence of the 2008 FLEMMS. which revealed that 19 per centum of simple alumnuss are non functionally literate ( Action for Economic Reforms and E-NET. 2008 ) . Functional literacy means a individual can read. compose. compute and comprehend. 2. To fix the pupils for higher instruction. From the DepEd’s appraisal. secondary alumnuss of the current system are non adequately prepared for college. They pointed out that this is why most of the classs. the alleged General Education subjects. taken by first twelvemonth college pupils are really remedial as they should hold already been mastered in high school. With K to 12. pupils will be better prepared as introductory classs that are presently taught at the third degree will be included in the high school course of study. 3. To fix the pupils for the labour market.

Harmonizing to the DepEd. with the 10-year basic instruction rhythm. pupils normally graduate from high school below 18 old ages old. excessively immature to lawfully fall in the labour force or putup a concern that will imply them to come in into contracts. The DepEd claimed that K to 12 will authorise them to confidently fall in the labour market as by the clip they graduate they are already of legal age and equipped with sufficient accomplishments. 4. To follow with the planetary criterions. At present. alumnuss who wish to work abroad are at a disadvantage because they are non automatically recognized as professionals while pupils who apply for graduate student surveies frequently have to inscribe in or take remedial classs to run into the entryway demands of the foreign state. For case. the Washington Accord signed in 1989 prescribes 12 old ages of basic instruction as a demand for the acknowledgment of technology professionals. Likewise. the Bologna Accord of 1999 requires 12 old ages of instruction for university admittance and pattern of profession in European states. How will K to 12 be implemented?

The K to 12 theoretical accounts proposed by the DepEd is the K-6-4-2 theoretical account. This includes one twelvemonth of kindergarten. six old ages of simple instruction ( Grades 1 to 6 ) . four old ages of junior high ( Grades 7 to 10 ) and two old ages of senior high ( Grades 11 to 12 ) . Under K to 12. the official school age for kindergarten is five old ages old. 6 to 11 old ages old for simple ( Grades 1 to 6 ) . 12 to 15 old ages old for junior high ( Grades 7 to 10 ) . and 16 to 17 old ages old for senior high ( Grades 11 to 12 ) . kindergarten will be made compulsory get downing this SY 2011-2012. A new course of study for Grade 1 and freshman pupils get downing SY 2012-2013 will be devised. Senior high. on the other manus. will be offered get downing SY 2016-2017. By SY 2018- 2019. all pupils would hold already finished 12 old ages of basic instruction before they enter college. Specialization paths

The DepEd explained that those who are non inclined to travel to college and want to prosecute technical-vocational classs or entrepreneurial Fieldss stand to profit from K to 12 every bit good. The High School Bridge Program is still unfastened for schools who think that it is still necessary but at present no school implements the said plan. Surveys of rationalists sentiments are widely circulated in the cyberspace. telecastings and in assorted print media / documents presents particularly prior to execution of the K TO 12. To mention some:

– Van Carlo Yacob. pupil from Fort Bonifacio National High School Initially. I have uncertainties about this. I thought this would be an added disbursal. But now I. the Mayor and Vice Mayor are convinced. In our ain small manner. we’re traveling to assist. We would wish to plight all out support. I would be one of the advocators. – Councilor Jennilyn Sison. Urdaneta metropolis

The more the stakeholders know about the K to 12 plan. the more they believe in the plan. –SWS. June 2011
With K+12. the pupils are employable after graduation. This createsjob opportunities graduates. This is the advantage on the portion of parents because it is free. – Dr. Rodolfo. PTA representative of Misamis Occidental

Separate K to 12 audiences yielded favourable consequences
• By and large receptive public and few negative remarks in the seven regional public audiences conducted by the House Committee on Basic Education and Culture
• Private concern and employment groups expressed support through a MOA to engage K to 12 alumnuss
• Private school organisations like COCOPEA. CEAP have held audiences on the K to 12 plan
Even the president of the Philippines himself is so optimistic about it when he says. “Education is the key to the long-run jobs of the state. If we fix basic instruction. we fix the long-run jobs of the state. And if we fix the country’s jobs. we will construct a truly strong society we can proudly name the Philippines. ” “We demand to add two old ages to our basic instruction. . I want at least 12 old ages for our public school kids to give them an even opportunity at wining. President Benigno S. Aquino III.

It is non surprising for the above cited remarks by some people after have been given positive account about K-12. It is but natural that when we want to sell something we will ever publicise the positive of it. Looking at its intent as a reform is truly a good thought. It could truly give multitudes the opportunity to avail of chances for employability. As to its content and aim it is ever taking frontward to a much improved life of the greatest bulk of Filipino young persons for employament and geographic expedition of their ain endowments and capablenesss in the field of work. Visioning it in front would present a good promise for the better. But on the other manus. during the class of execution. I think it is where the job now is felt. Some are sample commendations of jobs that came along at the start and would likely come along as plan execution progresses: A waste of money for the series of preparations that were undergone by instructors.

As observed in the latest preparations of Grade I and Grade 7 instructors they experienced incommodiousnesss in the locales and in the adjustment. The budget for the preparations were compressed such that instructors suffer incommodiousness to the point that they did acquire less out of what were supposed to be grabbed from the preparation. The large question…Was the budget decently managed? The instructors went place with less thoughts on where to acquire the needful stuffs. School caputs were besides of less aid to the instructors because they were oriented subsequently than the instructors. Although advocators explained how the budget for traveling to college would be minimized with the K-12 Program but on the portion of the pupils and parents they will see besides the effects due to the distance of the school where they are to pass for their senior high school because non all high schools or colleges near them offer the vocational-technical class they opt to inscribe in.

They have to look for such in a farther off school/college. Another large job that will be encountered is on the figure of schools to suit the voc-tech pupil enrollees. Can the selected school/s be ready to suit the many enrollees particularly that it is proposed that for every state one or two be made to offer for a peculiar voc-tech class. How ready? If they say they are? Again. allowing that it would be decently planned and estimated. how ready are the schools for the installations they are to utilize in order that such instructional installations could fit or vie with the existent 1s used in the planetary industrial market? Would at that place be more opportunities for the corrupt people in big graduated table procurances related to this K to 12 execution? Another job that would be inevitable is the inquiry on whether the teachers for the vocational and proficient field has the competency and expertness that would genuinely be able to leave the quality direction to our pupils to vie with the planetary demand?

The following thing that comes to our head with this K-12 execution is the spread of two old ages when our HEI’s don’t have enrollees. Will this non affect many of the private and public establishments? How far can our authorities damages this job so as to consequence minimum reverses on them? . headed by leaders who will non be so sold with the plan? . Many of our lawgivers are proprietors. if non corporators of large private schools. This will certainly impact their concern programming particularly on the meeting of schools or the merger of schools within countries to offer peculiar classs. This truly would mostly impact CHED to where private schools belong. Would they choose for general public assistance over their ain involvement?

Flawed Framework
In a statement posted on its web site. Anakbayan. a young person group. assails that the K to 12 plan is “flawed. debatable framework” which will merely decline the instruction crisis and “will further subject the nation’s workers to exploitation “The K-12. unlike what Aquino is assuring. is non a solution to instruction and employment sufferings. Alternatively. it will further decline and intensify the jobs. ( Vencer Crisostomo. national president of Anakbayan ) The extra old ages in the K to 12 plan will intend extra load to parents and pupils who at present are already fighting to complete the current rhythm. At nowadays. merely 14 out of 100 finish the instruction rhythm up to college. Extra old ages will intend extra drop-outs. Aside from that. there is a deficiency of budget for instruction presently. Gov’t disbursement for instruction. as it is. is non plenty to run into the deficits at present. The deficits will decline and we will be faced with greater jobs.

Tuition rates for third instruction will farther boost as the government’s K to 12 will besides intend forsaking for third instruction. The K to 12 besides aims to make cheaper. more ‘exploitable’ labour. The plan ensures to do more ‘semi-skilled’ young persons enter the labour force every bit early as 18 old ages old. which will do the unemployment job worse. The net consequence will be lower rewards for workers and finally. an onslaught on labour and rewards. This plan will further subject our young persons to exploitation by foreign monopolies as inexpensive. break one’s back labour. “There is broad resistance against K-12. particularly as it evidently failed during its first and 2nd twelvemonth execution. Students. instructors. parents and decision makers are against the plan. ” ( Crisostomo. Anakbayan Chairperson )

III. Decision

The K-12 Program as framed is a truly a blessing. that is if one would be really optimistic about it. The plan would be giving them chances to derive proficient and vocational accomplishments that the universe extremely needs today. There would be more benefits to derive than non for our pupils. This would be attained of class if the authorities through its leaders would be serious to hold it implemented harmonizing to its characteristics as planned and equipped with adequate conflict cogwheel for the success of its execution. However. this would be a curse if they will be weak to expect and supply steps in order to be able to right whatever possible jobs that will come along particularly that this K-12 Program is impacting non merely a few and a smattering of people but the greatest bulk particularly the country’s pillars who are the immature 1s. Whether this plan would be a curse or blessing it depends on the taking characters who will do its machineries work.


1. Mariano. Carmen S. Educational Reforms for Global Demands Quezon City: Katha Publishing Company Incorporated Websites
1. hypertext transfer protocol: //www. depedregion6. ph/pdf/The_Enhanced_ % 20Kto12_Basic_Education_Program. pdf 2. hypertext transfer protocol: //www. deped. gov. ph/cpanel/uploads/issuanceImg/Kto12 % 20FAQs % 20as % 20of % 20December % 202011. pdf 3. hypertext transfer protocol: //www. vibalpublishing. com/esp/k-12-program. hypertext markup language

4. hypertext transfer protocol: //www. sunstar. com. ph/cagayan-de-oro/local-news/2013/05/26/k-12-beneficial-or-scourge-284209

DepEd Orders
1. Dep Ed Order No. 31. s. 2012

1. Arellano. Marlyn A. ( 2011 ) . “Curriculum for a Change” . The Modern Teacher. Vol. LVIII No. 6 ( Nov. 2008 )


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