The research on undertaking direction has been studied for decennaries. Many bookmans and directors put great attempts into happening out what can act upon undertaking success. Through their continuing work and cherished experiences. what factors dominate the success of undertakings is good documented in literature. The usage of these guide texts can assist undertaking directors to cover with hard undertakings. Furthermore. it is consentaneous consensus that undertaking critical success factors are necessary for direction squad to accomplish undertaking aims and guarantee success.
If they are good considered and addressed. so it is more likely that a undertaking would hold more successful outcomes. On the other manus. if these factors are non strictly taken into history. so may take to the failure of a undertaking. However. it is sophisticated to implement all success factors which normally involved in a wide facet of cognition. accomplishments. tools and techniques. Furthermore. during the whole undertaking life rhythm. the cardinal factor finding success or failure frequently varies in different undertaking stages.
In existent pattern. different elements lending to the undertaking success interact with each other. They are integrated instead than segregated. Therefore. pull offing a undertaking is a challenge. Even though the attack of pull offing a successful undertaking is good documented. it is highly difficult to use in pattern. In add-on. there are many other elements can impact the success. When working on a undertaking. societal. economic and environmental effects should be considered. This treatment paper aims to separate the differences between undertaking and undertaking direction success and happen out their relationship.
In add-on. why the success factors frequently ignored in pattern and other societal impacts which may act upon undertaking success will be discussed. Definition of undertaking and undertaking direction In order to discourse what factors can impact the undertaking being successful. we have to understand what a undertaking is and what the undertaking direction is. In A Guide to the Project Management Body of Knowledge ( POMBOK Guide. 2000 ) . a undertaking is defined as “a impermanent enterprise undertaken to make a alone merchandise. service. or consequence.
The intent of the undertaking is to achieve its aim and so end. ” Temporary and unique are the standard characteristics of undertakings. Temporary does non intend a short period of clip. Some undertakings may last several old ages. It can be comprehended as every undertaking has a beginning and will be terminated when it meets aims. Each undertaking is alone because it is a originative activity which has non been done. For illustration. the building of a bowl is a undertaking. Though there are 1000s of bowls in the universe. each of them has different location. design and proprietor etc.
The POMBOK Guide ( 2000 ) defines the undertaking direction as “the application of cognition. accomplishments tools. and techniques to project activities to run into project demand. ” The direction involves a broad scope of work including range. clip. cost. quality. human resource. communications. and risk direction. Munns and Bjeirmi ( 1996 ) reference some differences between undertaking and undertaking direction. Undertaking can be merely defined as a undertaking which can profit a company. In contrast. undertaking direction focal point on planning and commanding the procedure to carry through the undertaking on clip. within budget and high quality. Undertaking and undertaking direction success
Specifying undertaking success is complex. because undertakings feature in unique. every undertaking success is measured in different ways. Wit ( 1998 ) makes a definition that “the undertaking is considered an overall success if the undertaking meets the proficient public presentation specification and/or mission to be performed. and if there is a high degree of satisfaction refering the undertaking result among cardinal people in the parent organisation. cardinal people in the undertaking squad and cardinal users or patronage of the undertaking attempt. ” This means the type of a undertaking determines the most of import factor which affects undertaking success at the most extent.
For case. if a undertaking is pressing. like the Beijing National Stadium which must be completed before 2008 Olympic Games. the critical factor is considered to be clip. In this instance. the addition of cost can be somewhat overlooked. Measuring the success of undertaking direction has many success standards. Atkinson states that the early definition of undertaking direction success is chiefly determined by accomplishing “The Iron Triangle” including cost. clip and quality. which used by Oisen from the 1950’ and go on to be used today ( Atkinson. as cited in Oisen. 2009 ) .
Atkinson besides mentions that utilizing “The Iron Triangle” to mensurate the success of project direction as a subject has non changed in about 50 old ages. Even if project directions run into the success standard. cost. clip and quality. there are many undertakings continue to be failed. The writer suggests utilizing the “Square Route” alternatively of the “Iron Triangle” . That is because the “Iron Triangle” merely takes the limited measuring into consideration but ignores the effects on the stakeholders. This means a successful undertaking has to equilibrate the benefits of organisations and the satisfaction of stakeholders.
As suggested in the “Square Route” . different groups of people who can have benefits from the undertakings are engaged in the measuring of success ( Atkinson. 2009 ) . Why project critical success factors frequently ignored in pattern? What factors can act upon undertaking success is ubiquitously documented in literatures. However. when utilizing it. one may happen out it is hard. For one thing. it is of import to separate the differences between undertaking and undertaking direction success. That is because sometimes they differ in aims. A success undertaking may attach to by successful direction. However. they are non needfully straight related.
Harmonizing to Wit ( 1998 ) . although being managed on clip. within budget and quality are the primary aims in literature. many undertakings which have non be completed on clip and within budget are still hold to be successful. In some instance. well-organized direction can do a part instead than guarantee the undertaking success. Some undertakings failed caused by confusing the success of undertaking and undertaking direction. For another. to mensurate the success of undertaking. the most of import standards are accomplishing the undertaking objectives. In different types of undertakings. undertaking directors have to do a first determination to place the chief end.
However. there are plentifulness of aims involve in a undertaking. In malice of cost. clip and quality. all stakeholders should be considered. Therefore. it is a challenge to happen out the most valued end. Furthermore. each undertaking has a distinguishing characteristic which can non be easy identified by utilizing literatures. In other words. there are no cosmopolitan rules utilizing in pattern. Normally. directors should do some alterations to happen out more flexible and sensible work when using theoretical cognition to existent utilizations. Finally. the primary ends frequently vary during the whole undertaking life rhythm.
Wit ( 1998 ) gives an illustration. an oil-field development undertaking. to show the alterations. In the development phase. the primary aim is to happen a site holding a batch of oil militias can be practically exploited. Then developing the oil-field in a cost efficient manner becomes the cardinal point. In the last topographic point. bettering productiveness plays a important function. The alteration of chief ends will impact the critical success factors in different undertaking stages. The most of import factor is non set in rock. It is indispensable for the undertaking direction squad to be good cognizant of these fluctuations and do the appropriate accommodations.
Other effects on undertaking success Despite the interaction between successful direction and undertaking. societal impacts. to a certain extent. influences the success undertaking and direction. As the increasing growing of international cooperation. the undertaking direction often engages in western and eastern civilizations. Better understanding different cultural background will lend to better the likeliness of undertaking and direction success. Culture is defined as “the beliefs. manner of life. art. and imposts that are shared and accepted by people in a peculiar society” ( Longman Dictionary. 2009 ) .
Peoples populating in different civilisation hold a different psychological perceptual experience of wealth. clip and societal life etc. Those values can take to a undertaking direction fail if they are non well-considered in pull offing a cross-culture undertaking. It is evidently that linguistic communication barrier is one of the important troubles in cross-culture undertaking direction. Nevertheless. societal and political activities play an of import function. Ballow ( 2005 ) province that “understanding international socio-culture issues encountered in concern is basically at the bosom of the issues companies will meet in globalising operations.
For case. China with the rapid growing of economic system becomes a immense market that many international companies intend to put in. However. the new market requests a higher demand. the apprehension of Chinese manner of direction. Harmonizing to Pheng and Leong ( 2000 ) . in contrast with western civilizations. Asiatic people prioritize personal relationships with their concern spouses. They tend to avoid talking jobs out straight. in order to maintain harmonious ambiance during dialogue. Pheng and Leong ( 2000 ) reference that undertaking directors working on international operations have to develop effectual communicating and interpersonal accomplishments.
What is more. they need flexibleness and adaptability to work with others who behave in diverse civilizations. Many international organisations disregarding cultural differences have paid the monetary value. With the increasing international cooperation. a undertaking director needs to understand the civilizations of their undertaking stakeholders. Decision It is safe to pull a decision that there is non a cosmopolitan attack to mensurate undertaking success. Key success factors are depended on undertaking itself because each undertaking is alone. Project critical success factors are good documented in literature. nevertheless it is excessively complex to implement and equilibrate all of them.
Successfully pull offing a undertaking can better the likeliness of undertaking success but it is non needfully straight related. Nevertheless the cardinal factor frequently changes through the whole undertaking lifecycle. In add-on. societal environment affects undertaking success in a certain grade and sometimes it plays an of import function. Consequently. critical success factors are frequently ignored in pattern these troubles. Having flexibleness and adaptability is important for directors to do accommodation in making practical undertaking.