The dining habits of women in Malaysia

Womans Dining Habit in Malaysia, our subject is about the feeding wont that be applied in adult females day-to-day life in Malaysia. This instance analyze really wants to bespeak the existent effects of several factors that influence in adult females dining wont. There are many factors that can act upon the form of adult females in their nutrient ingestion. The physical wellness, socio-emotional, and life-style alterations can make profound effects on adult females nutrient wonts. In Malaysia itself, most of the influent in dining behaviour is come from the background of their household, the civilization, instruction degree and besides emotional. The factor that we want to foreground here is about the alimentary consideration, the different between pupil and working adult females, and the emotional influence.

In a day-to-day life of pupils, there are several factors that can influent their eating behaviour. Base on the experience most of the pupil are truly witting about the monetary value instead than the nutritionals nutrient. Student who are adolescents are more tend to take the fast nutrient like “ KFC ” and “ Mac Donald ” as their repast during bent out with friends. This is because the monetary value and besides the environment in that topographic point are convenient. Besides that, the other factors that can influent adult females in eating wont are by the emotional. As we know, adult females are tends to make anything in order to carry through their desired. For illustration, if the adult female was heartbroken, she tends to eat more or lesser. This state of affairs is depending on how that adult female control and pull off their emotional.

Now let we speak about urban adult females who are unrecorded in the metropolis and more educated people. These types of adult females largely are really concern in their nutrient consumption. They are being exposed to the mass media about the nutritionary in day-to-day life. These types of adult females are more concern on what they are eating, when the right clip, how the nutrient be delivered and so on. However, there are still have group of adult females who are really workaholic with their occupation until do them skip of their repast clip due of busy with their occupation. Because of that, these people are tends to take addendum in order to give energy to them without holding repast. This type of eating wont is supposed to be avoiding because in a long term it can give a side consequence.

1.2 Background

Womans dining wont can be definition as the eating wont or eating behaviour that be applied in day-to-day life. Most of the adult females in the universe have their ain wont that is inflowing by the environment. By in a certain instance, adult females have the same wont in taking their nutrient to devour. In general, adult females should devour healthy nutrient in order to full make full the food organic structure needed. The organic structure needs critical vitamins, aminic acids and certain fatty acids, as it can non fix them. Healthy nutrient constituent indicate a wise blend of nutrient that provide saccharide, protein, Ca, fats and other hint elements. Calorie needs vary harmonizing to age and activity degrees.

There is a different in eating wont in adult females particularly toward pregnant adult females. In order to give the best start to her kid healthy growing and birth weight, pregnant adult females should take particular attention by eating right nutrient. Proper dietetic wonts and timings are indispensable during gestation. Pregnant adult females require extra addendum and nutrition in order to hold equal unsusceptibility and opposition. They besides must retrieve that the consumption taken of the female parent, has entire consequence on the uterus. Mean while, for the grownup adult females those are normal and did non holding pregnant, particularly those who are believing that be thin is the ideal weigh should believe it once more sagely. Actually, hungering to remain thin is non a healthy feeding wont. It ‘s more about eating the right nutrients at the right to go forth the felling energetic and promoting a sense of well-being.

Food ingestion form of adult females today are determine by the environment in which nutrient is selected, personal and cultural penchants degree of instruction, economic status, and societal functions. Nowadays, adult females who are educated individual are most concern about their wellness. There are exposed to many with the information about the hazard of taking improper diet. For illustration, the increasing of malignant neoplastic disease among the adult females makes them willing to pass their money in holding a good nutrient. Certain illness work stoppage adult females more than work forces. These could run from anaemia to osteoporosis and cystitis. Devouring a healthy diet could do a difference to the manner they feel and look.

1.3 Objective

The chief aims of this instance survey are:

To happen out the importance of alimentary nutrient toward adult females dining wont,

To bespeak how far emotional factor influence adult females dining wont,

To find the different between college pupil and working adult females toward dining

wont.

The chief point of the first aim is to cognize whether adult females concern or non with the alimentary nutrient consumption in their repast.

The 2nd aim is to find the different in dining wont between college pupil and working adult females. As we know, the chief different between this two group is income, so by differentiate this two group we can place the sort of dining wont that they choose.

The 3rd aim is to bespeak whether emotional in adult females life can act upon their dining wont. Womans are the of course emotional gender. So by making this study, we can find how far emotional can give consequence toward their nutrient consumption.

2.0 LITERATURE REVIEW

2.1 Introduction

As defined by Judith C. Rodriguez, the term dining wonts refers to why and how people eat, which foods they eat, and with whom they eat, every bit good as the ways people obtain, shop, usage, and discard nutrient. Dining refers to take a repast. Men and adult females are different when it comes to what we eat harmonizing to findings from the population study of the Foodborne Disease Active Surveillance Network ( FoodNet ) ( 2008 ) . This undertaking is focus on adult females dining wont. Harmonizing to Collins English Dictionary, adult females mean big female human being.

2.2 Importance of alimentary nutrient

Presents, more and more adult females like to eat away from place. The nutrient supply has changed the sorts of nutrient chances away-from-home. A broad assortment of distributional channels such as fast nutrient, cultural, pizza eating house, and besides workplace cafeteria can be chosen. ( Debra A. Krummel & A ; Penny M. Kris-Etherton, 1996 ) In a study of Continuing Survey of Food Intake by Individuals ( CSFII ) , over a dietetic assessment period of 3 yearss, 69 % of all adult females aged 20 old ages and older consumed something off from place at least one time. Nevertheless, Hurley J & A ; Schmidt S. ( 1993,1994 ) suggested that the healthfulness of nutrient consumed off from place is a job.

Womans are believed that knowing and more concern about nutrition nutrient. ( Rappoport et al. , 1993 ) Womans have higher cognition in nutrient, nutrition, wellness, and the interrelatednesss between them. For case, six surveies that compared work forces and adult females ‘s cognition degrees about the nutrition and physiological benefits of nutrients, differences in types of fat ( eg saturated V polyunsaturated ) and the nexus between diet and diseaseA showed that adult females are significantly more knowing about these issues. ( Trent LK, 1992 ; Cotugna et al. , 1992, As Levy et al. , 1992 ; Rushworth et al. , 1990 ; DA Crawford & A ; KI Baghurst, 1990 ; and D Hill et al. , 1991 ) Generally, adult females have more positive wellness and food-related attitudes and beliefs. Lloyd et Al. found that adult females are willing to alter their dietetic behaviors such as addition fruit and veggies ingestion, and diminish consumption of fat and high cholesterin nutrient.

Several surveies have showed that adult females frequently consume fruits and veggies. One of the surveies is from the wellness study of “ Fruit and vegetable ingestion. ” by Perez, Claudio E. ( 2002 ) . Furthermore, Beer-Borst et Al. ( 2000 ) reported that adult females ate fruits and veggies more often than did work forces. Wardle et Al. ( 2004 ) who surveies merely fruit consumption has found the same consequences in 23 largely European states. Besides that, Kubberod, Ueland, Rodbotten, Westad, and Risvik ( 2002 ) found that adult females had more penchant for veggies.

2.3 Emotional Factors

The emotional factor besides has its influence on adult females dining wonts. Richard Shepherd ( 2005, p.36 ) has noted that nutrient pick which is like any complex human behavior, is influenced by many interrelating factors. This has included assorted physiological, societal, and cultural factors, and these factors need to be taken into history when sing dietetic intercessions. Another evident is from the Dutch Eating Behavior Questionnaire ( Klein et al. , 2004 ; Oliver et al. , 2000 ; van Strien & A ; Bazelier, 2007 ) that shown adult females score significantly higher than do work forces on the emotional feeding subscale.Generally, adult females are like to eat more when they face emphasis. For case, study from Zellner, Loaiza, Gonzalez, Pita, and Morales ‘s ( 2006 ) reported that adult females increasing nutrient ingestion when emphasis. 71 % of the female participants for this study are reported eat more when emphasiss while 35 % are people who eat less or who remain the sum they eat when stressed. Michaud et Al. ( 1990 ) besides found that lone adult females ate more under conditions of emphasis with the important addition in consumption for adult females ( 135 kcal ) . Furthermore, Weinstein et Al. ( 1997 ) reported that although adult females and work forces eat more when stressed but the consequence was stronger for adult females than that for work forces.

During emphasis, adult females like to eat sweet and high fat nutrient such as cocoa and debris nutrient. This has been shown by Zellner et Al. ( 2006 ) who found that adult females increase their consumption of sweet, high-fat nutrient ( M & A ; Ms ) but reduced consumption of Sweet, healthy nutrient ( grapes ) under emphasis. He has concluded that emphasis disinhibited eating in adult females and this disinhibited eating more likely to be directed at nutrients usually proscribed by weight-loss diets. Wansink et Al. ( 2003 ) besides found that adult females preferred Sweets ( and other bites ) as comfort nutrients. In add-on, Grunberg and Straub ( 1992 ) reported that adult females increase their desire to eat sweet nutrients when stressed from the consequences of their research lab survey.

Besides that, the extended reappraisal from Dye and Blundell ( 1977, p.1149 ) show that there is an addition in energy consumption and appetency during the premenstrual stage. The appetency alterations experienced with greater strength and given increased psychological accent in these adult females. During premenstrual stage, the radical metabolic rate may be higher and this has caused adult females require increased energy consumption when weight and energy degrees are maintained. ( Dalvit-McPhillips,1983 ) .Those adult females who suffer from PMS ( Premenstrual Syndrome ) suffer this addition in energy consumption and appetency during the premenstrual stage. Premenstrual syndrome means straitening symptoms on a regular basis happening during the luteal stage of each catamenial rhythm, in the absence of organic disease. ( Misha Moore, Sarah-Jane Lam, Adam R. Kay, 2010 )

2.4 Difference between female college pupils & A ; working adult females

Food behavior was associated with socioeconomic position. ( Eva Roos et.al. , 1998 ) Socioeconomic position is related to occupational societal category and income degree. Hence, the difference of dining wonts between female college pupil and working adult females has studied. DiMeglio, G. ( 2000 ) has found females are more likely to jump breakfast. For case, surveies from Horwath ( 1991 ) , Hendricks and Herbold ( 1998 ) , and Marietta and colleagues ( 1999 ) have showed that college pupils frequently skip repasts, consume big sums of fast nutrients and intoxicant, bite on high-calorie nutrients, and avoid certain nutritiousA nutrients.

Female college pupils and working adult females have different dining wonts due to their income degree. Axelson ( 1986 ) has found that income-food outgo or income-food usage relationships show positive associations. Peoples ever eat more nutrient and replacement preferable points as per capita or household income additions. The purchase of extra discretional nutrient and greater outgos for improved “ quality ” of nutrient is frequently associated with extra income from the higher income degrees. The quality defined in footings of added convenience, packaging, or particular production methods such as organically grown or hormone-free. The other illustration shows that income degrees influence adult females dining wonts seen by analyzing the impact of working adult females. Female employment has generated higher household income. This has result in increased outgo ( ingestion ) for all normal ( in economic sense ) nutrients, with increased proportional to the size of income snap for each trade good. ( Horton S & A ; Campell C. , 1991 ; Popkin BM & A ; Haines PS. , 1981 ) Due to this, working adult females are by and large less concern about the monetary value when they select menu points.

Diane Hayes and Catherine E. Ross ( 1987 ) have reported that adult females who are non employed are more concern with their visual aspect. This is because employed adult females do non necessitate to answer on visual aspect as their lone beginning of power when compared to non-employed adult females. Furthermore, survey of Burckle et Al. ( 1999 ) showed that environment comparing and competition exist across many spheres included visual aspect in the college environment. Arnett ( 2000 ) besides reported that chances abound for immature females to do appearance-related societal comparings in college campuses since they are surrounded by others of about the same age. “ One ground people eat right is that they are concerned with their visual aspect ” ( Hayes & A ; Ross, 1987 ) . Due to this, female college pupils ‘ organic structure weights are more likely influence their pick of repasts.

2.5 Summary/Conclusion

Assorted surveies have found that related with adult females dining wonts. From the related surveies and information that found from diaries and articles, adult females are found that concern about nutrition nutrient. Generally, adult females have more cognition about nutrition nutrient and they ever like to devour alimentary nutrient. Besides that, emotional factors can act upon dining wonts of adult females. Stress, PMS, and temper are those emotional factors that affect adult females dining wonts. The dining wonts for female college pupils and working adult females are different since they have different socio-economic position.

3.0 METHODOLOGY

3.1 Respondents

Since the rubric of our undertaking is ‘Women Dining Habit in Malaysia ‘ , our focal point of samples is put on female above 20 old ages. There are 100 respondents from different races, and age scope. Among them, 41 is Malay, 38 Chinese, and 21 is Indian. In footings of business, 43 respondents are pupils, 9 respondents are housewife, and 48 respondents are working adult females ( authorities sector, private sector, and ain concern ) .

Research Methods and Techniques

Random Sampling

In this undertaking, we use this type of sampling because our mark population is adult females merely. Other than that, we take the informations from 100 adult females, which is the sum of our sample. Then we focus on adult females at the age of 20 old ages old and above. The chief benefit of simple random sampling is that it guarantees that the sample chosen is representative of the population. This ensures that the statistical decisions will be valid.

Questionnaire

A quantitative research technique of study questionnaire was chosen. The questionnaire is divided into four subdivisions based on our aims. The first three parts are designed based on the aims. Meanwhile, the 4th portion is about the demographic profile of respondent. The age, race, matrimonial position, business, and monthly income scope has been asked in the demographic profile portion.

The questionnaires are distributed in UPM every bit good as outside UPM in order to hold respondents from different socio-economic position. In UPM, most respondents are pupils while we focus on working adult females or homemaker when we distribute the questionnaire around Sri Serdang. We choose to utilize the press release questionnaire which we give the signifier by manus to the respondents.

Besides that, sing the engineering development around the universe, we besides print our questionnaire online which is at SurveyMonkey web site. With this, the respondents from other province besides can entree into our web site and can easy make full up the online questionnaire. The intent that we carry out on-line questionnaire is to roll up respondents from around Malaysia. We have post it into societal web which is Facebook and besides through electronic mail. The questionnaire web site reference is:

hypertext transfer protocol: //www.surveymonkey.com/s/GNRCCRY ( first portion )

hypertext transfer protocol: //www.surveymonkey.com/s/BVBH8ZQ ( 2nd portion )

The sample consequences for the online questionnaire was attach in the appendix.

3.3 Data Analysis

After we wholly get the reply from 100 respondents, we have to analyse the information and see how many per centums for each of the inquiries and what it will be represent for the each reply. Because of that, we eventually decide that we use the statistic analysis by SPSS. SPSS is the short signifier for Statistical Packages for the Social Sciences. Its map is ever used for study companies, authorities, instruction research workers, selling organisations and others. There are besides have different sort of base package that can be usage for analysis such as descriptive statistics ( cross tabular matter, frequences ) , bivariate statistics ( mean, ANOVA ) , anticipation for numerical results ( additive arrested development ) and anticipation for placing groups ( factor analysis ) .

In our instances, we use basic method which is descriptive statistics such as frequences and cross tabular matter to analyse our informations. First, we have to identify in the variable which is all the inquiry and reply. Then we enter all the 100s of informations harmonizing to the questionnaire signifier. After complete it, we choose to analyse informations by demoing the frequences and graph for all inquiries in Section 1, 2 and 4. While for the Section 3, we use the cross tabular matter analysis because we want to compare it between the reply and business degree. From that we can see clearly the comparing and consequence between the variable.

4.0 RESULT AND DISCUSSION

Section 1: Importance of Alimentary Food Among Women

Question 1

In this inquiry, the adult females that dining approximately 3 to 5 times per twenty-four hours is the highest per centum which is 72 % , followed by 28 % of them that merely approximately 1 to 2 times merely dining in a twenty-four hours. For the other pick of reply which is ‘More than 5 times ‘ in a twenty-four hours was no consequence. Because of that consequence, it tells us that adult females besides have their appetite same as work forces gender, which they have to take every repast for every chief dining hr, such as breakfast, tiffin and dinner. There is no difference between the adult females and work forces due to the nutrient consumption in a twenty-four hours.

Question 2

We find that approximately 68 % of adult females normally get their repast by purchasing from nutrient tribunal or cafeterias. Besides, other 25 % of them are cooking the repast by their ain or homemade nutrient and the remainder 7 % is by acquiring it from mamak stall and fast nutrient eating house. Majority adult females get their nutrient from nutrient tribunal or cafeterias because many of them are pupils, and working in authorities and private sector. For pupils, they merely can acquire their nutrient from the nearest dining topographic point in their college, so they do non hold other picks. Then, for working adult females in both sector, they did non hold clip to travel back place during lunch clip to fix by their ain, so they merely have their repast at their workplace cafeteria.

Question 3

For this subdivision, we create the inquiry to find the importance of alimentary nutrient among adult females dining wont, but the consequence shows contradiction from the intent. Because the highest per centum is which that the adult females most concern about during dining is the low-cost monetary value of nutrient at 37 % . Following, is the delightful gustatory sensation factor that contributes 23 % , so, merely followed by the alimentary nutrient concern, approximately 22 % of adult females population from this study. Even though the per centum of alimentary concern in nutrient was in the 3rd topographic point among adult females, but it is non precisely shows the adult females are non truly concern about it. Of class the monetary value is the major factor in everything that we do, but when it comes to the comparing between the credences of monetary value and alimentary factor, they will prefer the low-cost monetary value during dining base on their budget. As we know, to devour wholly the healthy nutrient every clip during dining is so dearly-won and it ‘s hard to happen such nutrient at every topographic point. So, they will prefer the low-cost monetary value and have to pretermit the alimentary factor for awhile.

Question 4

This consequence will back up the old consequence which 95 % of adult females concern about alimentary nutrient in their mundane dining. Either pupils or working adult females besides truly concern about this factor. They are truly need to do certain that every of their nutrient consumption must dwell chief foods such as saccharide, protein and vitamin to give them a good wellness, for organic structure development and besides to keep the adequate energy everyday to go on their work. On the other manus, for the other 5 % adult females that did non truly witting about the alimentary nutrient is because they think on another factor that can fulfill their appetency such as the delightful gustatory sensation, hygiene topographic point and convenience for them.

Question 5

From the study, for the breakfast repast, they prefer sandwich which achieve at 32 % among them, followed by 28 % adult females that take roti canai or nasi lemak as their regular breakfast. After that, there are besides have other type of repast that they take as breakfast such as salad, honey, noodles and mineral H2O which each of it represent 1 % . It tells that adult females are more prefer to hold visible radiation and alimentary repast such as sandwich alternatively of heavy repasts early in the forenoon. Besides, 1 % of them normally skip their breakfast and merely imbibe mineral H2O because their organic structure weight act upon their day-to-day breakfast consumption and want to cut down it.

Question 6

Question 7

As shown in the statistics for Question 6 and 7, it has the connexion. For Question 6, we ask about how many times the adult females take saccharide and protein nutrient per twenty-four hours because we want to cognize if their concern more on alimentary nutrient and truly pattern it in their day-to-day repast. 79 % of them tell that they take the repast about 1 to 2 times, while 19 % take 3 to 5 times a twenty-four hours, followed by 1 % in every each class that take more than 5 times carbohydrate and protein repast, and besides do non take any of it. The consequence was proved by the Question 7, which that its show 83 % of most adult females take rice, meat and veggies during tiffin clip, whereas the lowest per centum, 1 % merely take salad and fruit.

Base on this consequences, we assume that for the highest per centum in Question 6, many adult females merely take full repast such as rice and dishes like meat or fish for tiffin hr merely or in their dinner besides. So, for their breakfast they non include the heavy repast as their regular consumption. Following, for the 2nd highest per centum, their breakfast, tiffin and dinner are frequently including this type of repast. Last, for the adult females that ne’er take saccharide ( rice ) and protein ( meat/ fish ) in a twenty-four hours, we find that they afraid if their return that repast, it can increase their organic structure weight continuously and difficult to command it. For Question 7, the complete combination of lunch repast like rice, meat and veggies is the lone type of repast that can carry through their appetency and can give them fulfill.

Question 8

Base from the statistic above it stated that 76 % of adult females taking fruits or veggies for 1 or 2 times merely, while besides there have adult females that taking 3 to 5 times which approximately 18 % . There are some of them that take it more than 5 times and besides did non take any. This is because we assume that they merely take fruit as a sweet after heavy repast during tiffin and dinner. Then, for the adult females that take more than 3 times, they like to eat fruit and veggies as the side dishes in their breakfast, tiffin and dinner, and besides they take it as bite between the chief dining hours. So, from this consequence it ‘s related to the intent that we want to find whether they truly witting on the nutrition balance in their day-to-day dining.

Question 9

As the informations shown supra, we besides take consideration on the sum of their disbursement for dining in a twenty-four hours. We have found out that the popular monetary value scope that adult females ever spend is between RM 5 to RM 10 per twenty-four hours because the per centum is the highest, 58 % among the other pick of replies. Following, it follow by the 33 % of adult females that spend RM 10 to RM 15 during dining and about 8 % of them are willing to pass more than usual scope, which is RM 15 to RM 20. There are besides 1 % of adult females that did non pass any of their money for dining out because they prefer to cook by their ain and this is the manner to salvage their budget, particularly for college pupils and adult females that peculiar about nutrient safety and nutrition value.

Section 2: Depression and Premenstrual Syndrome ( PMS ) Influence

Womans Dining Habit

Question 1

From the informations shown there are 13 % adult females are strongly agree that they have no appetency during emphasis, and there are 7 % strongly disagree that they have no appetency.

Here we can reason that during emphasis most of the adult females are holding no appetency. Stress is well-known subscriber off appetite loss. It is hard to believe about nutrient when undergoing emphasis. The symptoms of emphasis include anxiousness, crossness, defeat and weight loss. When under emphasis, the desires to eat be given to disappear. It can be result from state of affairs at place, work, survey, kids, relationships, fundamentally from any facet of adult females life.

Question 2a

From the informations shown there are 32 % agree that they like to eat debris nutrient during emphasis, and 28 % disagree that they like to eat debris nutrient during emphasis. Here we can reason that, most of adult females are tend to eat debris nutrient during emphasis. When adult females in bad temper or a job, it tends to devour all nutrients delightful, and most of the nutrient was delightful fatty nutrients, sweet and with such high Na diet are debris nutrients. During emphasis the chief point of feeding is merely to let go of the tenseness instead than to full make full their appetency. Foods greatly influence the encephalon ‘s behaviour. A hapless diet, particularly one with inordinate debris nutrients, is a common cause of depression. What we eat command the degree of encephalon chemical called neutrotransmitters, which regulate human behaviour and neurotramsmitter are closely linked to temper.

Question 2b

From the informations shown that there are 40 % agree that adult females like to eat cocoa during emphasis, and 16 % disagree. We can state here that, most of the adult females love to eat cocoa during emphasis. And for illustration dark cocoa consist of emphasis relieving belongingss which is rich inflavenoids, which are antioxidants. These antioxidants can benefits the liver, immune system, bosom and the blood vass, the connective tissue and musculus, and the suprarenal glands and nervous system. So when adult females eat dark cocoa confect, it can cut down degree of the emphasis hormeone hydrocortisone every bit good as the “ figh-fight ” endocrine known as catecholamines. ( Warner, 2009 )

Question 3

From the informations shown there are 35 % agree that adult females are concern with their diet during PMS, and 19 % disagree.

We can reason here that most adult females are concern with their nutrient consumption during PMS such as consumed more fruits, veggies and H2O. Normally during PMS most adult females will endure a period hurting, so to retrieve this job, the nutrient consumption should be considered. Elimination of caffeine, sodium carbonate, cocoa, fat, procedure sugar and alcoholic drink are one of measure to cut down PMS symptoms.

Question 4

From the study shown there are 36 % disagree that they eat more during PMS, and merely 28 % agree with this statement. Here we can reason that largely adult females less appetite during PMS. During PMS, adult females are less eat because they are fell cramping in lower venters so tend to eat will cut down. Sometime during PMS, adult females besides feel nausea, so when the strivings are all came together, it will do less appetency.

Question 5a

Question 5b

Question 5c

Question 5d

From the informations from 4 tabular arraies which are Question 5a, 5b, 5c, and 5d, there are 39 % strongly agree to dine at place for jubilation, and 17 % strongly disagree to observe in hotel. So from the information we can reason that adult females willing to take make it at place for celebrate something particular instead than other topographic point. As we know, largely adult females have ability to cook, so when to observe something, they will wish to cook their ain nutrient and served to the invitee. The memorable of eating homemade dishes will do them fell that jubilation will be more memorable.

Question 6

From the informations shown there are 55 % agree that they love to eat more than usual during happy temper, and merely 8 % disagree. We can reason here that, adult females have high inclination to eat more during happy temper for illustration during jubilation of something they will eat more and bury about their diet for a piece. For illustration, in celebrate their birthday party, adult females will be given to eat more because the exhilaration in that state of affairs, so as consequence they will eat and eat and do n’t care about their diet at the minute.

Section 3: Difference between Female College Students and Working Women

Question 1

Question 2

Occupation

Never ( % )

Sometimes ( % )

Always ( % )

Entire ( % )

Female pupils

16.28

58.14

25.58

100.00

Working adult females

10.42

72.91

16.67

100.00

Table 1: Make you jump the breakfast?

Occupation

Never ( % )

Sometimes ( % )

Always ( % )

Entire ( % )

Female pupils

20.93

55.81

23.26

100.00

Working adult females

12.50

54.17

33.33

100.00

Table 2: Make you jump the tiffin due to busy with study/work

From the Table 1, 25.58 % female pupils ever skip their breakfast while 16.67 % working adult females ever skip their breakfast. It shows that pupils are more frequently to jump their breakfast compared to working adult females. The tabular array besides shows that 16.28 % of pupil and 10.42 % working adult females ne’er skip their breakfast. Through Table 2, we found that more on the job adult females who contribute to 33.33 % skip their tiffin compared to 23.26 % of pupil. On the other manus, 20.93 % female pupils ne’er skip their tiffin while 12.50 % working adult females ne’er do that.

More female college pupils skip their breakfast because of their agendas that fluctuate to suit categories. Working adult females need to travel out working in the forenoon. Hence, they normally can devour their breakfast before they go working. Unlike working adult females, college pupils frequently stay up tardily at dark and more likely wake up tardily in the following forenoon. They ever put breakfast to wayside merely because they choose sleep instead than eat breakfast. Since female college pupils ever skip their breakfast, they normally will devour their tiffin. However, for working adult females, they ever skip their tiffin due to brawny work loads. During lunch clip, they will go on to cover with their paperwork and jump their tiffin to complete the heavy work loads. They may believe that their productiveness can be increased when they utilizing their tiffin clip to go on the work.

Question 3

Occupation

Never ( % )

Sometimes ( % )

Always ( % )

Entire ( % )

Female pupils

0.00

55.81

44.19

100.00

Working adult females

2.08

58.34

39.58

100.00

Table 3: Make you eat at place

Table 3 shows that more female college pupils ever eat at place than working adult females. The female pupils have contributed 44.19 % while there are 39.58 % working adult females ever eat at place. There are no female pupils who ne’er eat at place but there are one working adult females who ne’er eat at place who contribute to 2.08 % . Generally, working adult females ever eat at outside. Most of them deficiency of clip to fix their repast at place. When they go out working, they are normally devouring their tiffin at nearby eating house or on their desk. After work, they do non hold purpose to cook at place since they are tired. Besides, they besides eat at exterior for societal assemblage.

Question 4

Occupation

Never ( % )

Sometimes ( % )

Always ( % )

Entire ( % )

Female pupils

0.00

41.86

58.14

100.00

Working adult females

0.00

47.92

52.08

100.00

Table 4: Bash you see monetary value when select bill of fare point

From Table 4, we found that more female pupils see monetary value when they select menu point compared to working adult females. There are 58.14 % female pupils will see monetary value while 52.08 % working adult females will make that when choice bill of fare point. Neither pupils nor working adult females do non see monetary value when they go dining. Both female pupils and working adult females see monetary value when they select menu point. However, more female pupils will make that due to they do non hold gross. When they go dining, they need to see their budget and utilize their money sagely. On the other manus, working adult females have income and hence, can increase their outgo for dining.

Question 5

Occupation

Never ( % )

Sometimes ( % )

Always ( % )

Entire ( % )

Female pupils

6.98

67.44

25.58

100.00

Working adult females

4.17

31.25

64.58

100.00

Table 5: Bash you concern about nutrition when you select menu point

From Table 5, 64.58 % working adult females concern about nutrition when they select menu point while merely 25.58 % female college pupils do that. There are 6.98 % female pupils and 4.17 % working adult females who ne’er consider about nutrition when they choose menu point. Generally, alimentary nutrient such as organic nutrient and low-fat nutrient have higher merchandising monetary value. Hence, working adult females who have income are more likely to devour alimentary nutrient than college pupils since they have higher fiscal power. Most of working adult females can afford the ingestion of nutrition often. Meanwhile, college pupils do non ever concern approximately nutrition as they can non ever afford alimentary nutrient with higher monetary value. Furthermore, college pupils think that alimentary nutrient are more hard to fix and are hard to obtain.

Question 6

Occupation

Never ( % )

Sometimes ( % )

Always ( % )

Entire ( % )

Female pupils

18.60

67.44

13.96

100.00

Working adult females

20.83

72.92

6.25

100.00

Table 6: Make you eat bite between repasts

Table 6 shows that 13.96 % female college pupils eat bite between repasts while 6.25 % working adult females do that. Furthermore, 18.60 % female pupils and 20.83 % working adult females ne’er eat bite between repasts. Fewer working adult females are frequently eating bite between repasts due to their busy life. When they are in their on the job topographic point, they are improbable to eat bite. Furthermore, they ever concern about their healthy and do non like to frequently eat bite which are unhealthy nutrient. For female college pupils, they normally like to eat bite while they are study particularly when they burn the midnight oil.

Question 7

Occupation

Never ( % )

Sometimes ( % )

Always ( % )

Entire ( % )

Female pupils

32.56

44.19

23.26

100.00

Working adult females

25.00

39.58

35.42

100.00

Table 7: Department of energies your organic structure weight influence your pick of repasts

From Table 7, we observe that 23.26 % of female college pupils concern their organic structure weight when they select their repasts while 35.42 % working adult females admit that their organic structure weight act upon their pick of repasts. In add-on, 35.26 % female pupils and 25.00 % working adult females ne’er choose their repasts depend on their weight. In fact, most adult females ever concern their organic structure weight. They like to devour less or low-fat nutrient particularly when their organic structure weight increased. Our consequence is inconsistent with the findings from the diaries. This is because more and more adult females are working presents. They ever need to hold a good and nice visual aspect in the on the job topographic point. Besides, more adult females ‘s occupations require them to run into their clients. Furthermore, they more likely to experience force per unit area that they have to obtain and keep an ideal weight from their co-workers or foreman. So, they are more concern with their organic structure weight every bit good as organic structure image. In order to keep their organic structure image, they will see their organic structure weight when they choose their repasts.

Question 8

Occupation

Never ( % )

Sometimes ( % )

Always ( % )

Entire ( % )

Female pupils

2.33

76.74

20.93

100.00

Working adult females

4.17

75.00

20.83

100.00

Table 8: Make you eat fast/instant nutrient

Table 8 has shown that 20.93 % female college pupils ever consume fast or instant nutrient. The working adult females show a somewhat lower per centum than female pupils which is 20.83 % . There are 2.33 % female pupils and 4.17 % working adult females ne’er eat fast or instant nutrient. There is merely somewhat difference between female pupils and working adult females who ever consume fast or instant nutrient. Both of them ever eat fast/instant nutrient due to the convenience and necessitate a speedy repast. Furthermore, working adult females ever busy to their work. So, they like to eat fast/instant nutrient that can salvage their clip for waiting their nutrient. Female college pupils are busy for their survey. They like to devour fast/instant nutrient particularly during the exam clip.

Section 4: Respondents Demographic Profile

Question 1

Question 2

Question 3

Question 4

Question 5

In the last subdivision which is Section 4, the tabular array and chart show the demographic profiles of respondents. In this undertaking, we were cod 100 questionnaires. Our samples consists of all female who are above 20 old ages old. The age scope of 20 to 25 old ages old constitutes the largest proportion of the samples with 54 % while 7 % respondents are in age scope of 36 to 40 old ages old. In footings of race, most of the respondents are Malay with 41 % . Indian shows the least per centum in footings of race which is 21 % . In the samples, more respondents ( 63 % ) are individual. In add-on, pupils with 43 % have the biggest portion in footings of business. Yet, merely 9 % respondents are housewife/not working. Furthermore, 39 % of respondents fall into monthly income scope of below RM1500. However, merely 1 % respondent has monthly income of RM 5500 to RM 7500.

5.0 Decision

When it comes to the terminal of this undertaking, we have seen and knows clearly that how is the adult females dining wont truly are, and what there prefer and non prefer to make during dining. We have concluded that our analysis has achieved the first aim, which we want to find the importance of alimentary nutrient among adult females. Besides that, we besides found out another interesting factor which adult females besides concern about the monetary value scope during dining.

For the 2nd aim, our researches have full make full the outlook. There are true that adult females ‘s ‘ emotional can act upon in their dinning wont. For illustration during emphasis, adult females are holding no appetency. Besides, during emphasis, adult females are tends to eat more debris nutrient or cocoa to let go of their tenseness instead than to full make full their appetency. During PMS besides, adult females are care about their nutrient consumption by eat the nutrient that can cut down their PMS, and be more less appetite because the hurting during PMS make them so. On other side, for jubilation, adult females like to observe it at place merely instead than other topographic point. And last but non least, during happy temper such as celebrate something particular, they will be given to eat more than usual.

Based on the information collected, female college pupils and working adult females have different dining wonts. This is due to their different income degree and different milieus. More female college pupils like to jump their breakfast while more on the job adult females like to jump the tiffin. Furthermore, more female college pupils ever eat at place and they ever consider monetary value when they select menu point. On the other manus, more on the job adult females ever concern about alimentary nutrient but less of them ever eat bite between repasts. In add-on, the picks of repasts for more on the job adult females are ever influenced by their organic structure weight. There is non much different between working adult females and female pupils who are ever eat fast/instant nutrient.

6.0 LIMITATIONS

All undertakings have both strengths and failings. The restrictions of this undertaking include some of the respondents are non understand English. This is particularly can be seen in homemakers who do non hold high educational degree. Hence, we need to interpret the inquiry to Malay or Mandarin for those respondents.

The following restriction is about the online questionnaire. Through on-line questionnaire, we can roll up more respondents from around Malaysia. Nevertheless, due to the bound of the SurveyMonkey web site, we can merely include 10 inquiries in one study. Hence, we are forced to split our inquiries into two studies. This has created a job that some of the respondents merely make full in the first portion and do non make full in the 2nd portion.

In add-on, the study method relies on a self-report method of informations aggregation. The knowing misrepresentation and misinterpretation or less apprehension of the inquiry occur. For case, some adult females do non understand the significance of PMS ( Premenstrual Syndrome ) . These can lend the inaccuracies in the information.

Last, base on our undertaking rubric is about adult females dining wont in Malaysia, but we unable to acquire the informations from all province in Malaysia. Because of that, the consequences that we obtain do non stand for all adult females from Malaysia and are less accurate.

7.0 RECOMMENDATIONS

In this undertaking, we have analyzed back what is the restriction or failings during we do this research. There are a few of restriction that we found out and we have already thought the manner to better it for our following research and besides for the future use. Harmonizing to the first restriction, we have to get the better of these jobs by making the bi-language questionnaire which includes English and Bahasa Malaysia for clearly understanding about the study.

Second, about on-line questionnaire, following times we have to happen and utilize the web site that can set in more than 10 inquiries and do non hold restriction for the inquiry quota. Then, the inquiry of subdivision 2 is inquiring about the PMS factor that influences the adult females dining wont. Some of respondents did non understand the term, so we have to explicate it in the easy word that can do them understand clearly.

Following, for the 4th restriction above, the manner to get the better of it is by transporting out more the on-line study via Facebook and finds the respondent from different province by happening out the item of their background in their profile info.

All of these suggestions we have to take serious consideration so that on the following clip, we did non do any of this error that can impact the information analysis and overall consequences. We besides should concern about what is the people behavior towards our study and presume that they do non truly cognize about what we did and what we want.

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