‘Explain how the Industrial and Gallic Revolutions led to the constitution of Sociology as a Social Science ‘ . Auguste Comte ( 1798 – 1857 ) played a important portion in the formation of Sociology as he believed society could be studied much like the natural scientific disciplines. He broke the topic of sociology down into two parts ; societal statics, which are the forces keeping society together and societal kineticss, which are those impulsive societal alteration. ( The Biography Channel. ( 2012 ) . Auguste Comte. )
He started analyzing society because he became interested in the alterations caused by the Gallic revolution and the Industrial revolution. Comte so decided he wanted to do sense of these alterations because he felt that the societal scientific disciplines of that clip could non “ adequately explicate the pandemonium and turbulence he saw around him ” ( Unknown. ( 2012 ) . The Birth of Sociology. )
Both the Gallic and Industrial revolution had a major impact on the constitution of Sociology as a Social Science. The Gallic revolution in 1789 was said to be more ideological. Many in society began to oppugn those in authorization. ( Unknown. ( 2011 ) . Knowing ) . This caused a dramatic alteration to the category system as blue bloods lost their wealth and power while those at the underside of the category graduated table moved into powerful places. ( Unknown. ( 2012 ) . The Birth of Sociology. ) Many early sociologists attempted to explicate why these new functions, powers and constructions existed and why new Torahs such a divorce were put into consequence. This had a major impact on relationships within the household every bit good as Education being made the provinces duty. Sociologists besides looked to explicate these new functions and values every bit good as Religion ‘s function in society.
The Industrial revolution shortly followed on in the 1800 ‘s. It played an of import portion in the constitution of Sociology as it transformed the manner of life wholly. There was a major diminution in agricultural work as society became industrialized. ( Unknown. ( 2011 ) . Knowing. ) Huge sums of people moved to metropoliss to work long hours in mills at low wage. This new manner of life gave persons a bogus image of world and chance. However, this position changed rapidly with the drive of offense, overcrowding, poorness and disease. Early Sociologists wanted to understand how society still continued despite its battle. New groups appeared that had power and control over the economic system which led to them going the dominant group in society. Questions were raised about the relationship between the different groups in society and why new engineering made occupations disused or de-skilled.
‘What are the cardinal characteristics of sociological thought ( Bauman ) and developing a Sociological Imagination ( Mills ) ? ‘
Zygmunt Bauman ‘s Sociological Thinking identified four ways in which Sociology can be distinguished from common sense which helped sociologists differentiate between the manner persons explain their life experiences and the manner sociology explains life experiences.
To get down with, Bauman argues that “ sociology makes an attempt to subordinate itself to the strict regulations of responsible address ” . This suggests that all sociologists must utilize scientific methods and empirical grounds to make up one’s mind if a claim is true or false, whereas common sense is non scientific, but is based on civilization and clip specific sentiments. Richardson, M and Roberts, A. ( 2011 ) .
Second, Bauman says that ‘size of the field ‘ is another difference between sociology and common sense. He says that “ sociology draws on a larger field of cognition than common sense ” . Peoples try to explicate their universe through their ain life experiences such as their ain actions, motives and their interactions with everyone around them. Sociology aims to look at wider societal forces when analyzing society and uses assorted different sociological theories in the procedure of understanding society. ( ibid )
The 3rd difference Bauman acknowledged is the manner in which sociology makes sense of human world by analyzing the different ways in which worlds are all interdependent. This helps us understand our motivations and the effects these motivations have on the universe around us.
The last difference Bauman identified is that sociology takes nil for granted and challenges the thought that things happen ‘naturally ‘ .
C. Wright Mills invented the term ‘Sociological Imagination ‘ from the thought that we can analyze the construction of society at the same clip as persons ‘ lives. Haralambos, M and Holborn, M. ( 2008 ) . He argued that there are three of import inquiries that we need to inquire in order to understand society. The first being where does society stand in human history? How did we acquire to where we are today and what were societies before us like? The 2nd inquiry Mills identified was what is the construction of society as a whole? How the constructions interrelate and what their impact is on society. Last, in order to understand society, we need to analyze what groups of people live in society and how they interact with each other and the establishments. Mills, C. ( 1959 ) .
These three inquiries aided the apprehension of society and a sociological imaginativeness. However, when we look at different issues, we besides have to inquire another two inquiries. Are they ‘personal problems of Milieu ‘ or are they ‘public issues of societal construction? ‘ Mills defined personal problems as issues experienced by an person and by those instantly around them, whereas public issues affect society as a whole.
‘Explain and contrast the cardinal characteristics of macro and micro theoretical accounts of society ‘
Although both Macro and Micro theoretical accounts both study human behavior in society, they do hold a figure of differences.
Macro theoretical accounts of society are normally referred to as Structural theories. Structural theories by and large examine society holistically intending that they look at society as a whole and how its constructions inter-relate with one another. Although they acknowledge that persons can do an impact on the universe around them through societal actions, they believe that the establishments have a bigger impact on persons in society. Structural theories tend to utilize an analogy to explicate the relationship between the establishments, but because there are legion positions that emphasise different facets of society, there is no 1 dominant analogy. Functionalism is an illustration of a structural consensus theory that emphasises harmoniousness and stableness within society. On the other manus structural struggle theories include Marxism, Neo-Marxism and Feminism. These emphasise battle and struggle between different groups in society. Macro theories besides study society objectively looking for forms and tendencies in human behavior. ( Bryant, L. ( 2012 ) . Sociological Theories )
Micro theoretical accounts of sociology are frequently referred to as Social Action theories. They believe that society is a direct consequence of human actions and interactions. In order to understand society, we should analyze the significance behind the actions of smaller groups alternatively of looking at how persons are influenced and shaped by society. Max Weber ‘s theory suggests that societal actions should be the brinies focus when analyzing societal action theories in society. His definition of a ‘social action ‘ is an action carried out by an single must be thought out and carried out in a societal scene to which an person can besides attach intending to. It is stated that micro sociology is by and large subjective as it attempts to explicate Social Action theories utilizing a method that produces qualitative informations that provides in deepness information, unlike Structural theories that uses quantitative informations for forms and tendencies. ( Bryant, L. ( 2012 ) . Social Action Theory )
‘Social Concepts and Theories ‘
Within sociology, there are different constructs used. The most of import 1s are socialization, societal order and societal stratification. The definition of these three differs from theory to theory but portion the same basic significance.
The term socialization is something everyone can associate to. It is a procedure where the kids in society are taught by the grownups. Society ‘s norms and values are transferred to the younger coevals through the socialization procedure. These norms and values order our behavior within society and what is expected of us. This procedure can come in the signifier of primary socialization ; which is through direct household or attention givers and secondary socialization ; which is everything else we interact with such as the mass media or instruction. ( Unknown. ( 2001 ) . What is the socialisation procedure? )
The 2nd construct is societal order. This is linked in with the socialization procedure as societal order is maintained through society holding with the norms and values passed on through the socialization procedure. This is the lone manner for society to go on.
The last construct is societal stratification. This is based on some signifier of structured inequality or unequal distribution in society.it signifiers a division between groups of people e.g. where a society is divided into two category groups ; the upper category and the lower category. ( Cliffs Notes. ( 2012 ) . What Divides United states: Stratification )
Different cardinal theories in Sociology link these facets into society in different ways.
The Functionalist theory is otherwise known as a consensus theory significance there is a general understanding throughout society. It adopts the thought that assorted parts of society interrelate which helps organize a complete system. Socialization within the Functionalist theory is said to be highly of import since order, stableness, harmoniousness and cooperation is derived from agreed shared norms and values. Functionalism besides emphasises the thought of meritocracy as it believes that if persons work hard they will be rewarded afterwards. It believes that societal order will merely happen if society agrees to what they call a value consensus. This is basic shared beliefs that have to be agreed upon and are besides deserving endeavoring for. Functionalism says that societal stratification in society is based around the thought of meritocracy and that persons are trained accomplishments to carry through different functions which help direct society. It acknowledges that there is some struggle between groups over different involvements but believes it is non every bit of import as groups that portion common involvements. Haralambos, M and Holborn, M. ( 2008 ) A.
Conflict theories on the other manus have a different position on these constructs. Marxism sees socialization as a procedure of go throughing over a dominant political orientation that Capitalism is good and equal when truly it ‘s non. This creates struggle between the two groups in society. Social order within a Capitalist system is maintained by a false consciousness produced by the Bourgeoisie. This bogus image of world teaches the Proletariat that society is equal and that they should follow with the governing category ‘s norms and values. Marxism has an alternate position on societal stratification ; they see it as “ a mechanism whereby some feat others, instead than a agency of fostering corporate ends ” . Marx positions society as being a two-class theoretical account with two major category groups being the Bourgeoisie and the Proletariat. However, these two groups are in changeless struggle over the ownership and control of the agencies of production which the opinion category uses to work and suppress the capable category. Haralambos, M and Holborn, M. ( 2008 ) B.
Another theory that has a wholly different take on these constructs is Symbolic Interactionism. Since Symbolic Interactionism is a societal action theory, it surveies the person and smaller graduated table interactions in society instead than as a complete system. The chief focal point of this theory is the ability to explicate the significance behind an person ‘s actions. Symbolic Interactionism believes that we are socialised through shared significances and symbols, which dictate our behavior and our interaction with others. Through this, an person will develop a self-concept. It is through societal interaction with others that we develop a image of ourselves in relation to other person ‘s reactions. Social order is maintained by the bulk keeping the same shared significances and symbols and besides by looking at the universe in a similar manner. Weber would state that sympathizing with others helps us understand the significances and readings of persons. As for societal stratification, persons who do non portion the same significances with the remainder of society are labelled, which is judged by others. Persons may act and interact otherwise with those who are labelled taking to them accommodating to this label therefore altering their self-concept. Haralambos, M and Holborn, M. ( 2008 ) C.