The purpose of this survey is to analyze engagement of the female workers into labour force throughout the 1900s-2010s period. We divided this period into stages in visible radiation of Claudia Goldin ‘s ‘The QuA±et RevolutA±on About Women ‘s Employment, Education and Family Life ‘ article. Besides we tried to seek interrupting points and the grounds that impacting the adult females ‘s determination of working in Turkey. In other words, in this survey we aimed to construe indexs about history of female labour force in Turkey and appreciate this period in footings of instruction, societal and household life of Turkish female workers.
Keywords: History of Female Labour Force in Turkey ; Causes of adult females ‘s labour force engagement in Turkey.
The most of import status for economic development factors of production every bit high as possible degree of usage and productiveness. However, from the beginning of these factors the usage of the labour force in all states in footings of gender, there is ever favoritism disadvantageous of adult females ( KA±zA±lgol, 2012 ) . Because by and large work forces take topographic point in the primary occupations but adult females can happen topographic point in the secondary occupations for themselves.
With the Industry Revolution, adult females that worked in the family or household concern espesicially in rural countries started to affect paid and regular plants in the workshops or mills.
Besides the transmutation from agricultural society to the industrial society led alterations in the labour force making of the states. Female labour force got the chance to work in the information and services sectors in industrial society. First they could take topographic point in servis sector fabrication or retainer as house servants and washwomans but under bad conditions and low rewards. Then they started to fall in industrial and information sector that are required some makings. So these demands led society the addition in the educational degree of the female labour force.
When we examine the literature, we can determine that adult females labour force engagement and as a bomber subject historical development of adult females labour force are really notable subjects for the researhers. But contrary to universe in Turkey although there are tonss of surveies that examine adult females labour force construction or consequence and consequences of their paticipation, there is merely a little sum illustrations that we can happen about history of female labour force engagement.
From the Turkey position, there are Ahmet Makal ‘s surveies that is outstanding, analyze the historical development of adult females labour force. Other illustration is Tansel Aysit ‘s -Private Employment Choice, Wage Differentials, and Gender in Turkey survey that she seek to seek female labour force engagements history. There are besides new surveies that include last 25 old ages of adult females labour force for case Turkiye’de KadA±n A°AYgucunun Panel Veri Analizi ( A-zer and Bicerli ; 2002 ) and The Determinants of Female Participation to The Labour Force: An Econometric Analysis ( KA±zA±lgol ; 2012 ) .
Besides in the literature we find surveies that analyze female labour force in footings of human capital theory. By and large the end of this theory attempt to happen some relationship between female labour force engagement and adult females ‘s instruction, age, matrimonial position even birthrate.
As an illustration in her The Quiet Revolution About Women ‘s Employment, Education And Family Life article Claudia Goldin seperated the history of adult females labour force engagement into four stages between late 1900s to show. The first three were evolutionary ; the last stage was radical. She claimed that the revolution was a “ quiet ” because the evolutionary stages led, easy, to the radical stage and she interpreted the displacement from evolutionary to revolutionary a alteration from “ occupations ” to “ callings ” . Harmonizing to her the differentiation between these two constructs concerns both skyline and human capital investing.
The purpose of this survey in visible radiation of Goldin ‘s article attempt to analyse the modern economic function of adult females in Turkey.
In the same manner with her we divided procedure of adult females labour foce engagement in four stages. Again three of them are evolutionary ; the last is radical.
Phase I the late Ottoman Empire period to Republican Era 1900- 1923 ;
Phase II 1923 to 1940s – Single party epoch ;
Phase III 1950s to 1980 ;
Phase IV Revolution 1980s to show
Phase I: From The late Ottoman Empire to the Republican Era ( 1900 – 1923 )
In the late Ottoman period adult females by and large worked due to their households demands. Traditionally they had been worked in the agribusiness sector centuries. There was some minority portion that worked for better their egos and assist the society by working. Unfortunately we have non plenty affidavit informations about this period but when we examine the literature ( from lifes, memoirs of orientalists and novels ) we can happen tonss of cogent evidence about the adult females labour force engagement.
In the rural portion of the Ottoman Empire, until the terminal of the nineteenth century adult females worked their traditional activity countries agribusiness and place work as unpaid household workers or inefficient seasonal workers but after this period adult females started to come in into the working life in the workshops or mills. When the literature is examined we get consequences that espesicially adult females who worked in the rug and fabric weaving at place took portion in the labour force in the same or similar plants.
Most researches revealed that adult females in the Ottoman Empire, were widely employed in the industry. On the other manus we can place that these informations are a spot deceptive. Harmonizing to statistics the proportion of female workers in the industry was about about 25 % in the Ottoman period however considered closely proportion of cultural beginning it is understood that the 85 % of these working adult females are Armenian, Grecian or Assyrian. For case in 1872, 84 % grownup females and 12 % misss of 5 415 labour who work in Bursa Silk Factory, were 95 % Armenian and Grecian. ( Makal, 2010 ) But when it is thought from the cultural and spiritual position this is non confusing information.
F: acil okunmasA± gerekenlerursa ipek bocekciliAYi abdulhamit donemi.jpg
Bursa Silk Factory at the beginning of 1900s
When we search the triping factors that led to muslim Turkish adult females ‘s entry into labour force is diminishing in figure of male workers due to Balkan, I.World and Idependence wars. By and large we have some similar informations espeacially about Turkish Muslims adult females with Cloudia Goldin ‘s survey. Women workers in this period ;
working in the family or household concern espesicially in rural countries,
by and large immature or widow ( who lost his husband/father/brother in wars )
in fabrication or retainer as house servants and washwomans
can non pull upon common or simple schools
With the development of industury adult females started to work in tabacco, lucifer and chemical mills. For case beginning of the 1900s 121 adult females labour were worked in A°stanbul Match Factory. Particularly with the I. World War adult females were worked in arm mills alternatively of work forces that recruited. Besides adult females worked station offices, some direction pozitions insomuch that mines and route building works. In 1902 there were 300 female workers in Istanbul Thread Factory. In Adana part by and large female and child labour were worked in ginnery mills.
Harmonizing to 1913-1915 Industrial Census studies in really different workplace female labour ‘s rewards was half of the male labour at the begining of twentieth century. This favoritism was non merely about industry sector. In rural country agricultural sector mean day-to-day pay of male workers was 5-10 kuruAY , whereas 3-6 kuruAY for female workers. Besides from this study we can acquire information about entire figure of female workers. Approximetely one tierce of the workers were female in the biggest mills of state ( Makal, 2010 ) .
On the other manus leader political group A°ttihat ve Terakki gave importance the adult females instruction. Women was the sembol of the Westernization for them. Harmonizing to their thought adult females became intelligent and rational wiwes, female parents and citiziens with instruction. But as we said they thought this from go good married womans and female parents perspective non become good educated workers. Even so their thoughts and policies about adult females led to get down Ottoman Feminism ( A-zkiraz, 2011 ) . In this period misss high schools and colleges were started to open but merely the little minority that by and large members of rich households and live in large metropoliss took instruction from these establishments. A°stanbul Girls High School ( A°stanbul A°nas Sultanisi ) that was the first high school for misss, was opened in 1913 and after that Academy of Arts and Conservatory, Schools for Nursing and Tailoring were opened. Besides in 1914 Teacher Training School was opened to run into the demands of instructor.
Phase II: 1923 to 1940s – Single Party Era ;
When we look at the working adult females during the early Republican period, we see that the effects of wars continued. Tonss of widow adult females had to work in workshops together with gender-based pay differences against adult females employer, long working hours and hapless occupational wellness and unsafety conditions or domestic plants and washwomans as retainer.
We can entree some studies about the conditions in Samsun Tabacco Enterprises. There is written ‘In really unhealthy conditions without heading and air status system, in darkness warehouses about 1000 adult females are employed. It is ascertained tonss of asthma and some TB facts ( Makal,2010 ) .
In this procedure we can advert about tonss of policies and Torahs that have consequence on female labour force betterment.
If we examine this stage in footings of public plants, the first ordinance Civil Servant Law that organized adult females ‘s work life enacted in 1926. Harmonizing to 6. Subsection of this jurisprudence ‘Women able to go civil retainer and they can be employed in every place that their work topographic point required ‘ . With this jurisprudence adult females gained equal rights with the work forces that worked in public domain. Harmonizing to records in 1927, 1609 of 7 817 civil retainers were adult females ( % 20.58 ) ( Ciftci,1982 )
With the announcement of the democracy, the immature goverment tried to represent some economic applications. For case thanks to Law for the Encourgement of Industry which came into operation in 1927 conditions for female labor was improved.
Harmonizing to 1927 industrial nose count it is identifies that in +14 group 37 640 of 147 128 ( % 25.58 ) workers were adult females in this sector ( Makal, 2010 ) .
Table I: Female Labor in Factories That Were Included in Industry Incentive Law
Beginning: Makal 2010, Turkiye’de Erken Cumhuriyet Doneminde KadA±n EmeAYi,
Another of import point that we can talk about is transubstantiation of economic construction in these old ages. After goverment established State Economic Enterprises ( SEEs ) the economic construction started to alter from agricultural ecomic system to import permutation industry system in late 1930s when statist economic policies were followed in Turkey. These organisations led to development of female workers working quality by supplying societal and educational chances to employees that worked these establishments. For illustration in Sumerbank that was the of import State Economic Enterprise where 6000 female worker was employed ( 1943 ) . In 1939-1945 period there were 242 female workers that join literacy classs in Sumerbank Cellulose Industry Organization ( Makal, 2001 ) .
Besides in this period with the new Civil Code adult females gained tonss of rights that has positive consequence on increasing of adult females labour such as right to vote and right to candidate.
Last we can advert about 1936 Labour Law as application that has consequence on female labour force in this period. Harmonizing to 1937,1943 and 1947 labour statistics that was done with in the context of Labor Law we can analyze female labour force betterment in these old ages.
Table II: Female Labors Statistics in Wage Workers That Were Included in Labor Law
Child ( 12-18 )
Beginning: Makal,2001 Turkiye’de 1950-1965 Doneminde Ucretli KadA±n Emegine iliAYkin Gelismeler
When we examine the tabular array there is large addition in footings of adult females and child labour force from 1937 to 1943. This can be explain with the consequence of II World War. Work force concripted as a security policy, nevertheless Turkey did non take portion in war straight. With Labour Law, the statute law included some societal policies for the protection of adult female workers. But these took really short clip due to the National Protection Law, adopted in 1940 under the conditions of the Second World War.
If we continue with in footings of household caption we should advert about conditions about kids ‘s baby’s room and kindergardens in workplaces. We can entree publication about The first quinquennial development programs that mention about these sort of issues. In this publication it was written that the Female labour force became more of import after war conditions and in the procedure of industrilization of Turkey. The of import requirement is giving pregnancy rights and supplying baby’s room and kindergarden chances for adult females that are working or want to work ( 1946 ) . For case in 1947, in the study of Turkish Grand National Assembly Work Comission in the of import State Economic Enterprises Tekel Cibali Tabacco Factory that 75 % of workers are female, has truly good kindergarden approximetely with 30 capasities and there was given female workers permission for nursery three times in a twenty-four hours. In another illustration once more in the same study it is said that ‘there is kindergarden with 25 capasities in Beykoz Leather Factory, has 1300 workers that one 4th of them adult females ‘ ( Makal,2001 ) . As consequence these studies indicates there were tonss of female workers who has kid.
Finally we can analyze this period in footings of Women instruction. With the Law of Tevhid-i Tedrisat ( 1924 ) it was aimed that standardisation and centralisation at the class agendas and assorted category construction in the secular system. But there were still some schools merely for females or some particular classs for females in the assorted system ( Ciftci, 1982 ) .
Table Three: Numbers of Female Teachers and Students in Vocational High Schools
Beginning: Kartal, II. MeAYrutiyet’tin Cumhuriyet’e MirasA± : “ Makbul KadA±nlar ”
Faculty of Political Science diary vol.38 It is taken from Turkish Statistical Institute database
Table Four: Numbers of Female Teachers and Students in College
Beginning: Kartal, II. MeAYrutiyet’tin Cumhuriyet’e MirasA± : “ Makbul KadA±nlar ” . It is taken from Turkish Statistical Institute database
When we compare the tabular arraies we can see that female college registration rate was really low in the sum. Besides there was non any female instructor ( academic ) in colleges this period in Turkey. On the contrary in vocational high schools female registration is really high and it was bit by bit increase. This can explicate with adult females still prefer to travel particular vocational schools like the old stage and we can construe that still the little minority could take instruction for better their egos non for carier.
Phase III 1950s to 1980 ;
In this period TurkA±sh economic system started to transform. While the portion of agriculturing decreased in GDP industry and servis sectors portion increased. With the terminal of the single-party epoch it was started to use more broad economic policies in Turkey.
SEEs were developed and Fordist system that allowed to work of unskilled employee, spread and thanks to this we expect that adult females could take portion in mills easier than earlier. Besides in 1950s in-migration was started from towns to metropoliss and by the consequence of Fordist systems in mills industrilization incresed in the Turkish economic system On the contrary statistics reveal that adult females engagement in industry portion decreased between 1955 -1980 period.
Table V: Women Labor Force Participation Rates and Rates of Women in The Labor Force ( +15 Age )
Womans Labor Force Participation Ratess
Ratess of adult females in the labour force
Beginning: Makal ( 2001 ) , Turkiye’de 1950-1965 Doneminde Ucretli KadA±n Emegine iliAYkin Gelismeler
( It is taken from Turkish Statistical Institute database by writer )
Female labour force engagement was decreased in this period, but when we compare Turkey rates were still higher than development states. This consequence can explicate with consequence of agricultural sector in Turkey.
As we seen there is negative corelation between female labour engagement and urbanisation. So this indicates by and large adult females who came metropoliss could non fall in formal labour force in these old ages. These adult females that migrate from town to metropoliss have non got required instruction and making in industry sector. Then by and large they continue their life at place.
Basically with the development of industrilization and as a consequence of this with the urbanisation work forces ‘s addition did n’t non plenty for households that migrated to metropoliss. So we expected to increase in the female labour force engagement. But on the contrary because of cultural construction -for case the thought of adult females ‘s first responsibility is take attention of his hubby and kids and doing domestic plants – and due to hubbies or male parents become more conservative because of caming more crowded topographic points ( town to metropolis ) with their households, adult females could non hold tonss of chances to take part labour force.
Another ground about diminishing in the female force should be about prejudice in the statistics. This can be explain by another feature of this stage is emerge of informal sector due to consequence of excess internal migration. Harmonizing to research about slum countries in Ankara by A°brahim Yasa, 20 % of the female population that lives in these countries were worked in the informal plants for case in fabrication but unregistreted and without insurance or labored in the service sector as house servants and washwomans ( Makal, 2001 ) .
Besides there were still bad status in work topographic points and deficient rights like baby’s room, kindergarden that female labours were subjected.As a prof garrison his harmonizing to describe about kindergardens in workplaces there were merely 32 establishments with kindergarden in whole state ( Makal, 2001 ) .
Table Six: 1955-1980 Activity Ratess
( Active population / +15 Age Population )
Beginning: A-ZER, BA°CERLA° Turkiye’de KadA±n A°AYgucunun Panel Veri Analizi
In another tabular array we can see diminishing in the labour force in 5 old ages periods. Particularly in 1970s in Turkey there were complecated political procedure with tonss of crisis and dead periods. Economy could non pull off without IMF AIDSs. So this state of affairss in ecomic system and migration consequence as we mention about once affected labour force engagements.
Last if we deal this stage in footings of adult females education degree, harmonizing to some studies school registration rates were increasing particularly primary and secondary school degrees but still there were non large alterations female college attandence. When we examine 1960 nose count consequence primary school alumnuss rate is around 8.63 % and adult females that did non finish any educational establishment rate is 89.95 % in the female labour force. In visible radiation of this consequences we can state in this stage the large bulk of working adult females are unskilled labours. Sabahattin Zaim ‘s researchs about industrial labour force in these old ages prove our reading. Acording to his findings female labour force occur from unskilled or semi-skilled adult females in these old ages. Besides this state of affairs led to lower rewards for female workers compare with male workers ( Makal,2001 ) .
As a consequence in 1950-1980 period Turkey started to develop to boot adult females by and large could non take portion sufficiently in this development.
Phase IV: Revolution ( From 1980s to show )
Table Seven: 1988-2011
Female Labor Force Participation ( +15 Age )
Engagement Rate %
Beginning: Turkish Statistical Institute Labor Force database
Harmonizing to table VII like in the stage III until 2007 there was diminishing in the female labour force. In the revolution stage there are tonss of causes which has consequence on adult females labour force engagement positively and negatively. We can order them like this ;
Increasing in in-migration from town to metropolis
Table Eight: Entire Numbers And Ratess About The Population Of Rural And
Urban Regions In Turkey
Beginning: Rural and Urban Regions Population Turkish statistic Institution database
As it is seen from table VIII migration from towns to metropoliss is continuening since 1927. Transformation from agricultural society to industrial society in Turkey is most of import cause of this. Particularly immature population have to account for migration to happen occupation in the metropoliss in many old ages.
If we compare this tabular array with table VII we can easy state that there is a negative corelation between urbanisation and female labour force engagement in Turkey. Like the stage III adult females that working in the rural countries stay out of the labour force when they come to metropolis.
Career oriented school registration ( particularly college instruction )
Table Nine: 1994- 2010 Female College Enrollment Ratess
Beginning: Turkish Statistical Institute Education database
Table Ten: 1988- 2008 College Enrollment Rates in Female Labor Force
In this phase adult females college registration rates incerasing about guadruple harmonizing to figure in table IX. Afetr a piece households that migrated metropoliss understand the importance of adult females ‘s instruction in footings of engagement to labour force. So they direct their misss to universities.
Beginning: Turkish Statistical Institute Labor Force database
On the contrary when we examine Table Ten there was a little decreasing college registration rates of adult females that were in female labour force. This can bespeak that there is non adequate occupation chances for the college alumnus adult females.
After complecated political old ages in 1970s, in 1980 military staged putsch in Turkey. Lots of male went to prison. This led to take part labour force for adult females that members of these work forces. Besides tonss of working adult females pushed out of work due to their political thoughts. There was another military putsch when Turkey come to 1997. Because of this putsch espacially tonss of adult females that use scarf did non allowed to work.
Export oriented and more broad economical policies
Economic started development after 1980s in Turkey. Economic system changed from import permutation for industrialisation to export orientated industrialisation. Goverment allowed to come foreign capital and incentived them to relaize invesment in Turkey.
With the Turgut A-zal reforms was to better SEEs ‘ efficiency and cut down their demand for subsidies. By 1982 the authorities had freed most SEE monetary values and had given SEE directors greater liberty and duty. The disposal favored opening province monopolies to outside competition and decided in 1983 to restrict SEE investings in fabrication ( Ataay ) . So in the market needs of labour force came into being. This was the large chance for adult females that want to work.
However Turkey ‘s economic system started to develop, there were stil immense budget shortage. Enflation rates could non diminish. System needed to assistance of IMF. With the devaluation consequence there were crises in the market.
As it is seen on the graph in the 1988, 1994 and 2001 there were large breakage point in the economic system. Besides with planetary crisis in 2009 Turkey economic system shrank. So this state of affairss affected labour force. Lots of workers particularly female workers combed out.
Graph I: Turkish Statistical Institute Economy Database
Spread of Feminist thoughts
Until 1990s feminist thoughts could non take topographic point in Turkey because of conservative policitical system. Besides lower instruction degree of female population has consequence on this.
After 1990s with broad political epoch tonss of feminist foundations established. This foundations involvement about instruction, employment, breedA±ng wellness of adult females and violance against adult females. So dispersed of this thoughts and improvments of this establishments led to adult females acquiring occupation for gaining ain money and doing carieer.
Discovery of unwritten contrecaption
As we mention before birthrate of adult females workers is of import point in footings of employee and labour market. Harmonizing to general perspective adult females workers are non efficient employers because their on the job procedure can be cut off with matrimony ( if their hubby ‘s does non let them to work ) or holding kid.
Besides by and large from adult females ‘s position planning the day of the month of holding kid is more preferred state of affairs, because they can be after their instruction life and entry clip of labour force and in this manner they can acquire chance to be after their bearer. Lapp with the whole universe in Turkey usage of unwritten contrecaption methods is increasing twenty-four hours by twenty-four hours. Harmonizing to table XI about one of four adult females use any of unwritten contrecaption method.
Table Eleven: Breeding Health RATES IN TURKEY ( 2008 )
Entire FERTILITY Ratess
ORAL CONTRECAPTION METHOD
Using Any Oral Contrecaption Method
Using Modern Oral Contrecaption Met.
Beginning: Turkish Statistical Institute Health Statistic Catalogue
Development in engineering about domestic plants
Development in conditions of workplace to assist working female parent ( pregnancy leave, kinder garden chance, portion clip working system )
Part clip working system is mentioned in IV. Five Old ages Development Plan in 1979-1983. These working system allows workers flexible specialisation with in the flexible periods. So this has consequence on increasing of adult females labour force engagement.
Besides with the more broad ecomic applications adult females trried to gravitate to labour force by increasing their rights like kinder garden chances and pregnancy leave right. In the last ordinance, adult females has 16 hebdomads paid and siz months un paid pregnancy leave and besides nursery permission one twenty-four hours in a hebdomad. This developments led adult females to fall in labour force easy in Turkey.
Harmonizing to all this indexs it is clear that come ining a professional work life is a really long and backbreaking procedure for Turkish adult females.
There is a strong relationship between adult females ‘s labour force engagement With Turkey ‘s development and the alteration in the socio-economic constructions of society.
More female labour force engagement in the state has been in the agribusiness sector until 1960s, so up to 1990s, it has been in the service and the industry sector that is non necessitating skilled employee as secondary workers.
Barely after 1990s adult females can take portion in the personal work life and primary plants. But harmonizing to happen the proportion of adult females is still really low in the high degrees of direction. Although the consequence of it decreased over clip, with the consequence of life in a patriarchal society and misinterpreted spiritual attacks Turkish adult females can non come to rightful topographic points.
When the historical developments are examined in the visible radiation of informations, we observe that today 10s of 1000s of adult females study for ego development and calling planning owing to decelerate but steady alteration in the point of position to adult female ‘s work
As we seperated in our survey, during the first 3 stages adult females need to work for demands but in the present they strive to better them egos and derive their economic freedom for achieve their purposes.
In add-on to being succesful at work, there are tonss of adult females who win to be a good married woman and female parent thanks to good clip direction. Besides Thanks to technological developments and the rights provided to them adult females stabilise their topographic point in the labour force twenty-four hours by twenty-four hours.
Limits of this survey is that we can non entree datas all we need from cyberspace. Research can be developed by happening some more informations from Turkish Statistical Institute catalogues.