Variations of the perception of culture and the differences

Variations of the perceptual experience of civilization from one to another topographic point forms a universe position on the term of civilization. ( Parvis 2007 ) Culture is the complex system of significance and behavior includes the values, beliefs, linguistic communication, imposts, and material objects that form a human group ‘s or society ‘s manner of life. The difference in civilization gives them individualities which makes them alone from people of other civilizations. ( Kartha 2009 ) For case, Malaysia ‘s civilization is alone with their mix of different ancient Malay, Chinese and Indian civilizations such as the festivals celebrated, for illustration, Hari Raya Aidilfitri, Chinese New Year, Deepavali Day and etc. ( Bradbury 2008 )

Harmonizing to Altman and Chemers, civilization includes the belief of people about the truth of the universe, their lives and the environment excessively. It besides comprises people values, for illustration, what they perceived to be good and bad. ( Altman & A ; Chemers 1984 ) For illustration, regard and love their ain parents are good values to be adopted. Besides that, civilization is besides one of the drive forces that translate regulations and beliefs into people ‘s twenty-four hours to twenty-four hours behaviour. They will easy be influenced and accept the cultural norms happened within their growing environment. If force is bad in their belief, they will take to utilize words to settle their dissensions instead than utilize their fists. ( Marasco 2002 )

Culture is a erudite and shared phenomenon. Every civilization has a significance to be learned from one coevals to another through the interaction with one ‘s cultural environment ( Haviland et al 2007 ) and shared by the members of society excessively. It enables them to foretell how others will believe and act and besides designs them thought and action how to response consequently such as the linguistic communication, literature, dines with chopstick and etc. ( Ferraro 2008 )

In drumhead, civilization works as a usher that provides the regulations and how to be applied in playing the game of life for the members of the society. ( Samovar et al 2009 ) Culture is important and necessary to represent a subject and order society as it helps keep society with a sense of belonging and togetherness. ( Andersen & A ; Taylor 2006 )

2 ) Contentss of Culture

Part Two

Even though fluctuation of civilizations exists, all civilizations portion five common constituents: symbols, linguistic communication, values and beliefs, norms and material civilization, including engineering. ( Macionis 2005 ) The first four constituents are categorized as immaterial cultural constituents which are the intangible universe of thoughts of society that contribute to both harmoniousness and discord in a society ( Kendall 2010 ) while material civilization are the creative activities of touchable things that reflect the significances of immaterial civilization, includes engineering. ( Popenoe 1989 ) Look at the symbols constituent at first as it underlines the other four. ( Kendall 2010 )


A symbol is anything that itself carry a specific significance to stand for something else. ( Popenoe 1989 ) Humans transform elements of the universe into symbols which enables a really complex thought simplify into an apprehensible signifier that can elicit the whole original thought. ( Rollings 2005 ) The simple act such as winking the oculus besides had shown the human capacity in making such symbol to show varied intensions which may suggesting their involvement, understanding or abuse. ( Macionis 2005 )

Symbols give shared significances to those who portion the same civilization. ( Kendall 2010 ) For illustration, Chinese who portion the same civilization will pay attending to the Chinese New Year nutrient such as noodles which should be untrimmed as it symbolizes a long life. ( 2008 ) This cultural symbol allows them to place their cultural roots which connect back to their lineage. ( Tisdell 2003 )

In add-on, symbols besides help to convey the messages such as respects to nationalism or love by utilizing seeable objects to show the abstract significances. For case, flags represent the spirit of nationalism. ( Kendall 2010 ) Another illustration, during nuptialss, the twosomes will interchange rings which act as a symbol to turn out the psyche of both twosomes merged to be an point. The usage of interchanging rings between the twosomes represents a symbol of holy nuptials brings up two Black Marias together and merged their psyche into an point. ( Stuart 2010 ) Gestures are besides symbolic signifier of communicating such as the motion of caput represents and transmits certain messages to others alternatively of express verbally. There are symbols stand foring people ‘s societal position that will impact others ‘ perceptual experiences on their category. Their ownerships of some branded luxury goods such as the autos they owned or their dressings marked as a symbol of higher societal position within a society as these steps their economic place. ( Kendall 2010 )


Language is the most of import set of symbols that enables communicating occurred among members of a society in a more meaningful manner as their thoughts can be expressed wholly to each other beyond gesticulation. ( Kendall 2010 ) The diverseness of linguistic communications in the universe is really obvious in different group in different society with different civilizations. ( Popenoe 1989 ) For illustration, there are different linguistic communications used by different ethnics in Malaysia include Bahasa Malaysia, English, Mandarin, Cantonese, Tamil, Hokkien and etc. ( 2008 )

In add-on, linguistic communication is the key to cultural transmittal from one coevals to the following coevals and they can bring forth thoughts to be after for their hereafter. ( Brym & A ; Lie 2007 ) It allows the kids to larn about their cultural heritage through the linguistic communication of their parents, instructors and friends which they can keep the solidarity place their ain functions and involvements within the group. ( Kendall 2010 ) Peoples who want to go member of any group or society have to larn the linguistic communication that they use in order to to the full affect themselves in the civilization. For case, going a sociologist or physician is indispensable to larn the nomenclature that they used to convey their messages and thoughts. ( Andersen & A ; Taylor 2007 )

Two anthropologists, Edward Sapir and Benjamin Whorf with their Sapir-Whorf thesis clasp that linguistic communication non merely influences the mode of people ‘s ideas and behaviors but besides affect their manner to position world. ( Kramsch 2003 ) They argues that linguistic communication and idea are closely related which the idea of people of one linguistic communication may distinct with the people with other linguistic communication. For illustration, as what pointed by Whorf, English talkers will believe of clip in a more nonsubjective manner compared to Hopi talkers as English divide the clip more additive and systematic into past, present and future tenses whereas Hopi Indians did non make so. ( Popenoe 1989 )

They besides argued that linguistic communication can arouse the issue such as racism and sexism as it lays down a sense of truth. It can used to reproduce societal stereotypes or alter the ideas of societal groups. ( Andersen & A ; Taylor 2007 ) For illustration, the racism slurs issue provoked by the headmistress, Siti Inshah Mansor. She had allegedly told Chinese pupils to return to China and besides said that the strings tied around Indian supplications ‘ cervixs and carpuss look like Canis familiaris tethers. ( Peterson 2010 ) Her abuse of linguistic communication caused to racism slander and as a consequence, an cultural Chinese rapper, Wee Meng Chee opposed and criticized her with obscene linguistic communication excessively by making an anti-racism and anti-discrimination picture cartridge holder named “ Nah ” . ( YAHOO! NEWS 2010 ) ( See Appendix 1 and 2 )

Valuess and Beliefs

Valuess are culturally defined criterions and rules that most people in a society buttocks desirableness, goodness and beauty. ( Macionis 2005 ) They ever used as counsel by people in societies in the affair of deciding their jobs, picks or dilemmas that come across their life as they involve opinions on what should people keep and follow. It helps to determine the ends of a society but they do non state the proper manner to act in any given societal state of affairs. ( Mohanty 2005 ) For illustration, happy matrimony is desirable by society members ; nevertheless, there is no specific method mentioned for them in constructing up a happy matrimony. ( Brinkerhoff et al 2008 )

On the other manus, values are stem from beliefs, strong beliefs that people hold to be true jointly within a given civilization which are normally without existent grounds. Beliefs are learned through socialisation and grow from what people see, hear, experience, read and believe about excessively. ( Rachel 2010 ) No affair the belief is derived from faith, folklore, art, scientific discipline or mythology which might illogically and without farther grounds, it however works as the footing of people in their perceptual experiences to milieus and besides in accounts and anticipations for their lives. ( Rollings 2005 )

For illustration, different societies will values and sticks with different civilizations such as in the facet of traditional male and female functions. ( 2010 ) Most societies now portion the value of supplying equalities for all genders. As in United States, the grownups believe that the president of the state could be a qualified adult female. ( Macionis 2005 ) Nevertheless, in Japan, the equality has non been to the full implemented and achieved in pattern as there is still a large spread occurred between work forces and adult females. They are largely extremely masculine where they appointed a male to be the squad leader instead than a adult female as they are still profoundly rooted in traditional construct which adult females are to remain at place. ( 2010 )

In add-on, values besides conveying out the thoughts that made of import for worlds who are willing to contend, work or give up something that they own in order to interchange for their saving. ( Fuchs et al 2003 ) However, values and beliefs can be the beginnings of struggle. This struggle causes tenseness and frequently leads to awkward or dilemma state of affairs which can do people travel right or incorrect manner in their beliefs. ( Macionis 2005 ) For illustration in the instance of mercy killing which is the deliberately act of killing a individual to alleviate his agony. Indeed it posed quandary as many people against it because it had gone against the social values that they hold and believe which include discourtesy to one human life except in the state of affairs when people act self-defense. ( Somerville 2006 )


Valuess and norms are closely related constructs but they do differ. Unlike values that do non province how should act, norms are cultural phenomena that do hold specific behavioral outlooks in a given state of affairs. ( Hechter & A ; Opp 2001 ) There would be a pandemonium if norms are absent in a society as they provide a design for life and form to follow for people in their actions and societal interactions. ( Brinkerhoff et al 2008 ) As such, they exist in order to make societal control. ( Fuchs et al 2003 ) Norms are reinforced through countenances which either in the signifier of wagess for conformance or penalties for aberrance. They may use to certain or all people depend on the state of affairs. ( Pearson Education 2010 ) In Britain, the “ intoxicant norm ” would be those who under the age of 18 ( non lawfully an grownup ) are prohibited to imbibe intoxicant in a saloon. In Saudi Arabia and Malaysia, the prohibition on imbibing intoxicant is related to spiritual values excessively. ( Mohanty 2005 ) The instance happened onto a Muslim theoretical account in Malaysia, Kartika who being caught imbibing beer in a cabaret and been the first adult female to be caned under Islamic jurisprudence. This penalty is to demo her incorrect committedness of serious discourtesy non merely to herself but to other Muslims excessively. ( Associated Press 2009 ) ( See Appendix 3 )

An early U.S. sociologist, William Graham Sumner has identified two sorts of norms: folkways and mores. Folkways are the usual imposts and general criterions of behavior adhered by a group in mundane life. ( Andersen & A ; Taylor 2007 ) A cardinal feature of folkways is that there are no serious negative countenances for its misdemeanors and they merely merely follow the usual manner of making things. ( Brinkerhoff et al 2008 ) For case, it would be considered rude for neglecting to state “ thank you ” but will non acquire any rough punishment for misdemeanor of norm. ( Stolley 2005 )

Moress are stricter norms than folkways and are associated with strong feelings of right and incorrect and misdemeanors will take to serious penalties. ( Brinkerhoff et al 2008 ) The illustrations of misdemeanors include tabus and prohibition of incest. ( Kendall 2010 ) For case, it would be a tabu for adult females who required by Islamic fundamentalists to look in public with their organic structures cloaked and faces veiled but failed to conform it. ( Andersen & A ; Taylor 2007 ) Besides, a 73-year-old Austrian male parent was found perpetrating incest with his girl by captive and raped her repeatedly for 24 old ages and had seven kids with her. ( Koay 2008 ) ( See Appendix 4 ) When mores are enforced and sanctioned by the province, they are known as Torahs which are enacted to modulate human behavior. ( Brinkerhoff et al 2008 )

Material Culture and Technology

Material civilization consists of all the natural and touchable human creative activities to which people have attached significance. ( Ferrante 2008 ) Sociologists call them as artefacts that shape the lives of peculiar society members. Material civilization includes edifices, vesture, and so on. ( Newman 2010 ) Besides, the feeding utensils are portion of material civilization and varied among different civilizations where the Chinese will eat with chopsticks instead than knives and forks which usually use by western people. ( Macionis 2005 )

From the artefacts, it can retrace some of the immaterial values and norms of the civilization. For illustration, firedrake dance which is the material civilization plays an of import portion in Chinese civilization as the Dragon itself has been considered as a sacred animal, typifying power, bravery, unity and self-respect whereas the dance denotes the welcoming of a new twelvemonth which was believed to convey good luck by the society members. ( Dragon of The South 2010 )

Many of the elements of material civilization are technological accomplishments, which are the cognition, techniques and tools that people utilize to transform resources into useable signifiers ( Kendall 2010 ) and besides the accomplishments that people use to accommodate to these altering societal, economic, or environmental conditions. ( Newman 2010 ) One illustration is the innovation of personal computing machine, which has become an built-in portion of the material civilization of most industrialised societies today as it enables people to make work more efficient and easier to entree information. ( Ajami et al 2006 ) Similarly, the coming of car has changed the manner of people lived as it gives them mobility to take advantage of economic and other chances which they can come on and go to farther topographic points to spread out their cognition. ( Newman 2010 )

Part Three

One of the major macro-sociological theoretical analyses of civilization is social-conflict analysis, which is the original work of Karl Marx and Max Weber. ( Stolley 2005 ) This model views society as holding societal dealingss between civilization and inequality. ( Macionis 2005 ) Harmonizing to struggle theoreticians, the competition between groups for scarce and unevenly distributed resources, such as wealth, power, position, all making struggles, with each group seeking to profit their ain involvements at the disbursal of others. ( Stolley 2005 )

Derived from Karl Marx ‘s and Weber ‘s work, modern-day society was depicted as motivated by economic resources which guaranteed their involvements of capitalist power that can used to rule other groups with no consensus and control over the regulations set of societal order. Therefore, it so resulted in many inequality issues. ( Siegel & A ; Welsh 2009 ) It was seen in the inspiration from Marx which the two societal categories were identified- middle class ( the capitalist category ) and labor ( the workers ) . Conflicts occurred due to the development of middle class on labor by paying them a small or even no wages for their labour. ( Ferrante 2008 ) It had shown an ongoing battle between the classes- the “ rich persons ” and the “ have-nots ” . ( Stolley 2005 ) This will ensue in poorness and besides societal jobs that harm the societal system, for case, environmental pollution which is a negative wake of activities conducted by commanding groups in chase of their ain fiscal success. Once they obtained the advantages they want with their societal mobility, they neglect any solutions for pollution that may do injuriousness to others ‘ wellness as the disbursals to extinguish the pollution are excessively dearly-won. ( Cortese 2003 )

On the other manus, the good illustration of a struggle theory position on offense is showed by Reiman ‘s “ The Rich Get Richer and The Poor Get Prison ” . The hapless and powerless are usually put into justness as the jurisprudence stated are said to be designed for protecting those richer against the felons acted by poorer such as larceny. ( 2010 ) Conflict besides can be based on tegument colour which is the racial and cultural bias that the people view on those minorities in the community. ( Cortese 2003 ) For illustration, the Blacks and African Americans are largely be the mark by police Michigans of cars and assumed to carry on condemnable Acts of the Apostless than they were White persons. ( Greene & A ; Gabbidon 2009 ) Even in instruction or workplace, persons with darker tegument tones have found to be discriminated excessively, as shown in Appendix 5 which happened in Mexico. ( Artificial Intelligence 2010 )

In add-on, McLeod ‘s “ Ai n’t No Makin ‘ It ” is a good illustration of struggle theory as applied to education- the division of categories into lower, in-between and upper category. It is said that lower category pupils are less competent ( 2010 ) and upper category pupils are told that they are more talent and hence deserve for their wealth. ( Macionis 2005 ) Harmonizing to the Gallic sociologist Pierre Bourdieu, cultural capital is the societal assets in civilization such as attitudes and cognition that indispensable for qualifying the upper societal category. Students are grouped and assigned into categories based on their sum of cultural capital instead than their aptitude. Therefore richer pupils are conferred with more cultural capital such as cognition about art, music and besides socially approved frock and manners in order to prolong their elite ‘s place and therefore the opportunity for those poorer to win is low. ( Kendall 2010 )

Besides that, social-conflict theory besides stresses on the women’s rightist theory, which gender functions as reflecting systems of unequal power agreements in society. ( Brinkerhoff et al 2008 ) More advantages and power from the facets of economic ( Marxist feminism ) , political and societal ( broad feminism ) are tend to prefer work forces than adult females who are being oppressed and perceived to be less of import function within a society. ( Cortese 2003 ) Surprisingly adult females still see gender favoritism in China workplace although gender equality was began to near in early 20th century. ( See Appendix 6 ) ( Zhou 2009 ) Even in households, extremist feminism besides argues that male dominator exercises misdemeanor on adult females include sex misdemeanor as a manner of commanding them and know apart adult females as a society ‘s stigma, as shown in Appendix 7. ( Stolley 2005 )

The continuity of cultural values and norms may perpetuate societal inequalities and this paradigm is criticized to non turn to the human needs every bit as what defined in structural-functional analysis. All these bring forth tenseness to foreground the demands of alteration. In a nutshell, it can see to adhere the thoughts of both analysis- social-conflict and structural-functional analysis to accomplish a more balance and incorporate society. ( Macionis 2005 )

3 ) Decision

In a drumhead, civilization depicts the manner of life of a people in the most general sense. For certain, people will see the stuff and immaterial constituents of the civilization that exist in their life. It acts a model that shaped and formed their attitude and behaviour based on the civilization that they shared, learned, and inherited from one coevals to following coevals through symbols, linguistic communication, values and beliefs, norms and material civilization. Culture provides a illimitable bill of fare of cultural options that allow them to choose from. ( Ferrante 2008 )

Social-conflict analysis did brought a lesson to all members in the society that hardworking people are deserve to bask their wealth and privileges than those who did non work harder at all. The power that those capitalists exercise on those weaker and poorer can be accomplished as a driving force that push them up to the degree where they wish to accomplish and obtain more than the position that they possess now. Keep in head on “ determine up or transport out, ” said by captain. It claimed that the people who willing to better their public presentation by working harder and acquiring out of any bad behaviour will merely able to stand a steadfast place in the battleground to vie with others and accomplish victory in their life. Their alterations made in what they value and believe in civilization will find their ain hereafter. ( Macionis 2005 )

Word Count: 3141 words


I'm Larry

Hi there, would you like to get such a paper? How about receiving a customized one?

Check it out