What Is Culture And Transfer Of Culture Sociology Essay

Cultures together make up a pluralist society. The basic feature of such a society is that it houses people with different criterions, values, imposts and life styles.

What is civilization?

By civilization we mean all moral criterions and acquired features that members of a group or society have in common and take for granted. Culture plays 3 chief functions:

It forms a model for modulating their behavior ( way to the manner in which people think and act )

It develops a function behavior ( it lays down what behavior is acceptable in certain functions and state of affairss )

It ensures that people have a common frame of mention ( they portion similar moral criterions and imposts ; better apprehension and easy exchange of ideas and feelings )

Culture is besides a beginning of societal individuality. It contributes to you being yourself to other people.

Transportation of civilization


Socialization is the procedure whereby people consciously and unconsciously larn the moral criterions and other cultural features of the society or group they belong to. The purpose of socialisation is the adaptation of persons to their environment, but besides the saving and continuance of the civilization.

Imitation and designation

Socialization in little kids chiefly occurs through imitation of behavior. The kid wants to move like the grownups he ( or she ) has a strong soma with. This is called designation. Besides subsequently in life, people mirror the behavior and position of others who are of import to them.

Socializing establishments

Socializing establishments are the topographic points where socialisation takes topographic point.

Family ( from birth, kids learn all kinds of behavior within the household circle )

School ( kids learn subject )

Workplace ( work requires a certain subject )

Circle of friends ( within an ambiance of friendly relationship, people adopt ideas and behavior )

Religious motions ( learning behavior in conformity with moral criterions of a faith )

Social groups ( e.g. athletics nines, learn how to blend in with others and to be a good ‘loser ‘ )

Government ( our society has legion regulations where people must obey to )

Media ( the media influences behaviour )

Social control

Social control is the manner in which people stimulate or force others to follow with the predominating moral criterions. Social control can be ‘formal ‘ if it is based on written regulations ( Torahs ) , and ‘informal ‘ like etiquettes and unwritten regulations.

Social control is frequently exercised in the signifier of countenances to guarantee that people comply with predominating formal and informal criterions. Sanctions may be positive ( wagess ) or negative ( penalties ) .

Socialization, socialization and internalisation

Socialization is a signifier of socialisation when person learns the cultural features from birth on. The antonym is socialization, when you are larning the cultural features of a society person does non originally belong to.

Internalization is familiarising yourself so much with certain facets of the civilization or society you belong to, that you automatically starts to act that manner.


What determines human behavior more, their innate or their acquired features?

The importance of innate qualities ( biological features ) , such as fright and gender, find human behavior. But the cultural factors determine behavior, excessively ( the behavior has been acquired ) . Decision: it ‘s ever a combination of both ; it ‘s both innate and acquired.

Types of civilization

Dominant civilization

A dominant civilization is the full set of moral criterions and features most people within a society accept. They are based chiefly on the cultural features of groups that are able to exert a big sum of influence.


Subcultures are supported by groups whose moral criterions and other cultural features differ from the dominant civilization in assorted facets. Subcultures are for illustration Feyenoord-supporters, conservationists and assorted cultural groups holding their ain civilization.


Subcultures does non hold to conflict with the dominant civilization. A counter-culture does. Its protagonists oppose the dominant civilization and/or are a menace to it. These people try to alter the dominant civilization through protest.

Common influencing

Cultures do non stay unchanged. Even dominant civilizations are continuously altering due to new developments and thoughts.

Social coherence

What is societal coherence?

We are non merely persons but besides societal existences ; we are in demand of other people. By societal coherence we mean the ( strong ) bonds we have with each other and the ‘we ‘ feeling that may ensue from these bonds.

Chemical bonds

In connexion with societal coherence, we distinguish four sorts of bonds:

Affectionate bonds

Economic bonds

Cognitive ( kennis ) bonds

Political bonds

Chemical bonds normally overlap. They are of import in life. Whenever person feels he/she has nil in common with other people you ca n’t talk of a societal community. The more bonds that exist between people, the more coherence there is.

Affectionate bonds

Peoples chiefly need each other for friendly relationship, support and love. Particular kinds of fond bonds exist between members of spiritual groups.

Economic bonds

Economic bonds arise from our dependance on other people for our nutrient, lodging and vesture. Or you can hold economic bonds with the house you are working for. As a consequence of globalisation of the economic system, the economic bonds between people range from small-scale to worldwide.

Globalization: people worldwide have been brought progressively closer together by agencies of improved conveyance and communications, accordingly doing them more and more dependent on each other. But globalisation may besides hold an inauspicious consequence on the societal coherence.

Cognitive bonds

Peoples develop cognition and reassign it to each other. You are dependent on other people for geting cognition, so you have cognitive bonds with them.

Political bonds

Peoples are dependent on each other because they merely can non set up everything themselves. The undertaking of a authorities is to guarantee that some services are arranged jointly. For societal coherence is it of import that people feel involved with the inquiry on how societal issues can outdo be solved. They are so involved with political relations.

History of Dutch societal coherence

Society is altering and hence no longer a changeless factor. As a society becomes more pluralist ( dwelling of more subcultures ) coherence is harder to accomplish.

Dutch society up to 1940

Very small societal mobility. This mean that it was rather hard to mount the societal ladder. The distance between the different socioeconomic groups was merely excessively great to bridge ( ‘once hapless, ever hapless ‘ ) .

Society was strongly family-oriented. There was a rigorous division of undertakings in the household. Work force worked, adult female took attention for the family and kids. There was no room for single development, because you could n’t make up one’s mind what instruction or business you wanted.

Hierarchical relationships. This means society was comprised of ranks and categories. The absence of societal services made a individual who lost his occupation live on charity, and kids owed absolute obeisance to their parents.

Strong pillarization. Society was organized along the lines of spiritual denominations. This meant that spiritual and political beliefs dominated societal life. Peoples of different spiritual and political motion had different schools, athleticss nines, newpapers etc. So pillarization meant that every group stood on its ain and members were non supposed to hold much contact with other political of spiritual groups.

Dutch society in 1950s and 1960s

The differences between population groups continued to be into the late fiftiess. However, society bit by bit became more homogenous. There was a reasonably strong national consciousness and powerful societal coherence. But his changed from 1960s onwards: a gradual addition in diverseness between groups began to emerge.

Changes in Dutch society

What changes took topographic point?

After World War II, a technological development set in.

There was economic growing which brought prosperity to big groups of the population.

The public assistance province was set up with its extended system of societal services.

Social mobility, the possibility to travel up or down the societal ladder increased.

There became more attending to the person, particularly the single development.

In add-on to traditional household, new discrepancies arose: single people populating together, populating with or without kids etc.

Better instruction and an income of their ain made adult females more self-assured. This is known as the emancipation of adult females.

Emancipation of homophiles, finally the same-sex matrimony was legitimized.

Turning prosperity and higher degrees of instruction has led people to go more self-asserting. Authority is no longer taken for granted because people got to cognize what was best for them.

Secularization set in, a turning figure of people no longer wanted to belong to a peculiar spiritual religion, and so this marked the terminal of pillarization. Depillarization and the attach toing procedure of secularisation besides meant that organisations such as schools and other associations broke off from the church they had been linked to.

In the last decennaries, faith has been translated into personal signifiers of spiritualty, but the strong binding function of faith has non disappeared.

Many young person civilizations began to originate. Due to more leisure clip, excess money allowed them to put up new ‘cultures ‘ , like the hippie civilization. Nowadays there are ‘punks ‘ , ’emos ‘ , ‘kakkers ‘ etc.

Increasing in-migration

We call person an ‘allochtoon ‘ if this individual or at least one of his ( or her ) parents was born and bred abroad. An ‘autochtoon ‘ was born and bred in the Netherlands, merely like his ( or her ) parents and grandparents.

The fledglings

There was ever in-migration

Peoples from other states have settled in the Netherlands for centuries, because they were non free or because the tolerant and broad clime in the Netherlands attracted them. The factors that make you go forth your ain state are called push factors. The grounds to travel to a state are called pull factors. One of the pull factors of the Netherlands was the comparative spiritual freedom.

From 1950s onwards, big groups of immigrants from the former settlements have been coming to the Netherlands. After Indonesia received independency in 1949, many dwellers of the former Dutch East Indies emigrated to the Netherlands, including a big group of Mollucans. Peoples form Surinam came to the Netherlands tor instruction or to seek employment. The Antilles is still a Dutch settlement and many people come to the Netherlands to analyze or seek employment, excessively.

In the sixtiess, Dutch people did n’t desire to, or could n’t make all the dirty and heavy work any longer. So Dutch companies started to enroll foreign workers. These people were willing to make the occupations at low rewards. Initially everyone believed the presence of these workers was impermanent. That was why they were called guest workers, but subsequently it proved they were wrong. Most of them stayed and their households joined after a piece.

Asylum searchers and refugees

Persons come ining the Netherlands are referred to as refuge searchers when they have to happen shelter in the Netherlands because jobs in their ain state ( e.g. civil wars, persecuted on beliefs etc. ) . In conformity with the commissariats of the UN Treaty, they are recognized as refugees: ‘someone whose fright of being persecuted for grounds of race, faith, nationality, rank of a peculiar societal group or political sentiment is tenable ‘ . Asylum searchers must use for refuge to remain in a foreign state.

Stricter regulations

New Aliens Act

Alternatively of political refugees there are many economic refugees, which are non allowed to remain in the Netherlands. There are so many refuge petitions that there are set up more rigorous regulations: de New Aliens Act ( vreemdelingenwet ) . This stricter jurisprudence provides that refugees are eligible for a abode license fi they meet the undermentioned demands:

They must hold valid paperss to turn out their individuality

The return to their state of beginning must put them at great hazard

For human-centered grounds some can non be sent back to their state

The New Aliens act provides for the undermentioned process:

Person seeking refuge has to describe at an application Centre, where it is assessed whether they are eligible for position of refugee.

Application Centre cheques whether the flight is tenable. In that instance, the refuge searcher goes to an refuge searcher ‘s response Centre, where they have to expect the determination.

Peoples who application is finally refused are transferred to a exile Centre.

Family formation and household reunion

It ‘s merely legal to seek for employment in another state when person has a peculiar profession ( e.g. physician, pro football player, IT experts etc. ) . But the largest groups of fledglings come to the Netherlands by:

Family reunion, concerns people who lawfully reside in the Netherlands and who can hold their households join them from the state of beginning. This frequently leads to concatenation in-migration as besides other relations come to the Netherlands.

Family formation, person sends for a spouse to fall in them from another state. This rather frequently concerns Dutch male child and misss of Turkish/Moroccan beginning who find a spouse in Turkey or Morocco.

Different signifiers of life together

About all states in the universe are pluralist societies. The manner in which these civilizations co-exist differs. In some states, the dominant civilization may even be imposed by force.

Assorted theoretical accounts

Some of the ways in which a authorities and its people can cover with cultural diverseness in a pluralist society are:





Segregation is the division of society into separate parts. Cultural groups do non populate together but parallel and separate from each other. It normally occurs if one cultural group that possesses the political, excludes other groups and denying them equal chances.

Segregation may besides happen on a voluntary footing. The minority group consciously cuts itself off from the dominant civilization because it earnestly opposes.


Assimilation is when a population group adapts so wholly that the original civilization mostly disappears. If a authorities imposes assimilation, it bans the cultural looks of minority groups such as linguistic communication and faith. Imposed assimilation has ne’er been a policy rule of the Dutch Government although it hopes some of its steps will ease more unity, such as integrating classs for immigrants.


Integration occurs when population groups adapt to the dominant civilization, but partly retain their ain civilization. Integration assumes that both parties, the fledglings and the having state will alter and accommodate.

Cultural universalism or cultural relativism?

Cultural relativists believe that in rule civilizations are of equal value and that moral criterions can best be understood by the civilization they relate to. They argue that western states emphasize human rights and single rights.

Cultural universalists oppose and say that certain values like cosmopolitan human rights should be valid in every civilization. A civilization is better in the grade in which these basic values are guaranteed.

Integration in the Netherlands

Social inequality and stagnating integrating

Social inequality occurs when people are dawdling behind socially and economically. Stagnating integrating means that fledglings are populating more or less apart from the dominant civilization. There were a figure of causes of societal inequality:

Worsening economic system

Size and concentration of immigrant groups

Family formation

Language lack

Discrimination and public image

Discrimination and public image

Some groups are still being discriminated against in the labor market. This applies to adult females and childs from cultural minorities. Discrimination is frequently based on prepossessions and stereotypes.

Integration policy

During the last few decennaries, the authorities has taken steps to better the socio-economic place and societal chances for deprived groups:

The authorities is prosecuting a mark group policy in the labor market. This creates better occupation chances for specific groups.

The authorities intervenes if excessively many ‘black ‘ or ‘poor ‘ vicinities arise.

The authorities has started to supervise the linguistic communication proficiency of yearlings and pre-schoolers in order to place jobs at early phase.

The authorities has become stricter in advancing engagement in Dutch society.

Conflicting civilizations and cardinal rights

Cultural differences may non merely lead to confrontations between groups, but besides to clangs with and between basic rights.


Conflicting moral criterions

The more recent in-migration into the Netherlands of reasonably big cultural groups seem to hold increased the hazard of divisions.


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