Women Behind Bars In South Carolina Sociology Essay

As an single bash you of all time think about what adult females go through behind bars? Or have you of all time wonder when was the first female correctional establishment was established? Well, I ‘m one of those concern single. Now, with that being said in the twelvemonth of 1835 adult females was eventually separated from an all male establishment in Auburn, New York to an establishment called Mount Pleasant. In a 30 twelvemonth period, Mount Pleasant was closed down due to over capacity and fiscal enlargement jobs in 1865. The wake of this issue caused those adult females to be sent back to local gaols all over New York. The first portion of the 20 century adult females was still incarcerated with work forces until 1873. In 1873 an all female staffed prison for adult females was unfastened in Indiana. By 1935 17 provinces had open up an all adult females correctional establishment. Get downing in the 1950 ‘s at least two to three female correctional establishment was unfastened upon each decennary for the increasing rate of adult females traveling to imprison, there where 34 adult females prison in the United States by 1979. In 15 twelvemonth period subsequently there were 71 prisons for adult females in the United States. By 1995 America had owned over one hundred and four females installations.

History of Women Prison Establishment for South Carolina

In the twelvemonth of 2000 the Southern States had 38 major province operated prisons for adult females which house more than 23,000 female wrongdoers. Out of those 38 Southern prisons, the State of South Carolina ain three of those prisons and their names are: Goodman Correctional Institution ( adult females L1-b ) , Graham ( Camille Griffin ) Correctional Institution ( adult females L3 ) , and Leath Correctional Institution ( adult females L3 ) . In the twelvemonth of 1927 South Carolina built their first correctional establishment for adult females, but it was still held in an all male penitentiary. By the twelvemonth of 1937 Stevenson Correctional Institution was built to merely house female prisons in the State of South Carolina. The Stevenson Correctional Institution became the first pre-lease centre in SCDC. When the twelvemonth of 1970 came along the Goodman Correctional Institution was originally designated for older inmates but was subsequently on converted to house female captives in the twelvemonth of 2001. Three old ages subsequently after Goodman installation was built another Female Institution was built in South Carolina called Women ‘s Correctional Institution. Eighteen old ages subsequently Leath Correctional Institution was the 3rd installation that was built in South Carolina, and in 2002 Women ‘s Correctional Institution was earlier subsequently named Graham ( Camille Griffin ) Correctional Institution. The intent of this research paper is to inform you about the constitution for all adult females correctional establishment in the United States and for South Carolina, How the rates of incarcerated adult females are increasing in the United States and South Carolina, Mental/ Physical Abuse Programs, Programs for pregnant and incarcerated female parents, and life after being behind bars for these adult females.

Table of Facility Openings and Closures for all South Carolina Prison harmonizing to South Carolina Department of Correction

Year

Facility Openings for all Prisons in South Carolina

1866

State Penitentiary

1892

Wateree River Correctional Institution

1938

Stevenson Correctional Institution

1950

Walden Correctional Institution

1962

Harbison Correctional Institution

1963

Maning Correctional Institution

1964

Watkins Pre-Release Center

1965

Mid-State Pre-Release Center

1965

The State Penitentiary was Renamed to Central Institution

1966

MacDougall Correctional Institution for Youth

1966

Midlands Reception and Evaluation Center

1969

Givens Youth Correctional Center

1970

Goodman Correctional Institution for older inmates

1970

Coastal Pre-Release Center

1971

Catawba Pre-Release Center

1971

Piedmont Pre-Release Center

1972

Blue Ridge Pre-Release Center

1973

Lower Savannah Pre-Release Center

1973

Northside Pre-Release Center

1973

Women ‘s Correctional Institution

1975

Harbison Correctional Institution Closed

1975

Campbell Pre-Release Center Replaced Mid-State Pre-Release Center

1975

Palmer Pre-Release Center

1975

Kirkland Correctional Institution

1980

Aiken Youth Correctional Center

Dutchman Correctional Institution

1981

Perry Correctional Institution

1982

Livesay Pre-Release Center

1983

State Park Correctional Institution

1983

Cross Anchor Correctional Institution

1985

Gilliam Psychiatric Hospital was placed in Kirkland Correctional Institution

1986

Lieber Correctional Institution

1987

McCormick Correctional Institution

1988

Broad River Correctional Institution

1988

Midlands and Reception and Evaluation Closed

1989

Allendale Correctional Institution

1989

Evans Correctional Institution

1991

Leath Correctional Institution

1993

Lee Correctional Institution

1994

Central Correctional Institution Closed

1994

Turbeville Correctional Institution

1995

Ridgeland Correctional Institution

1995

Trenton Correctional Institution

1995

Aiken Youth Corrections Center Closed

1997

Kershaw Correctional Institution

1997

Blue Ridge Pre-Release Center Closed

1999

Dutchman and Cross Anchor merged to Tyger River Correction

2001

State Park for Females Closed

2001

Goodman Correctional made for Females

2001

Givens Correctional Institution Closed

2002

Women ‘s Correctional Institution was Renamed to Graham ( Camille Griffin ) Institution

Literature of Review

The undermentioned literature reappraisal reveals information about growing of adult females under Correctional Supervision for the United States and for the State of South Carolina, why do adult females associate to violent offenses, Female inmate admittances rate for the United States and for South Carolina, The War on Drugs drives addition of Women to acquire arrested, The race and ages for the United States and for the State of South Carolina, and the Family/ Socioeconomic Issues, the different Mental/ Physical maltreatment and plus the.

Growth of incarcerated Women in the United States

More than one million adult females are presently under the supervising of the condemnable justness system in the United States. More than 200,000 of these adult females are confined in province and federal prisons or local gaols. Expanding at 4.6 % yearly between 1995 and 2005, adult females now account for 7 % of the population in province and federal prisons harmonizing to Darrell K. Gilliard. The figure of adult females in prison has increased at about dual the rate of work forces since 1985, 404 % v. 209 % ( Tracy L. Snell 2005 ) . Womans in province prisons in 2003 were more likely than work forces to be incarcerated for a drug offense 29 % v. 19 % or belongings discourtesies 30 % v. 20 % and less likely than work forces to be incarcerated for a violent discourtesy 35 % v. 53 % harmonizing to Tracy L. Snell.

Growth of incarcerated Women in South Carolina

In the State of South Carolina the overall Numberss for adult females who are under the correctional supervising are 1341 harmonizing to the South Carolina Department of Correction. Do African American adult females go to imprison more than white adult females? Well, I know that ‘s a inquiry that all of us would desire to cognize. Harmonizing to ( Ibid, 2005, pg8 ) in 2005, Black adult females were more likely as white adult females to be incarcerated in prison, and that they represent 30 per centum of all incarcerated under the province or federal legal power, and Latino adult females represent 16 per centum. So does that reply your inquiry about African American Women? In the State of South Carolina 532 African American adult females was admitted to SCDC, compared to white adult females who Numberss was 686, and the other race. So the myth that states that black adult females in South Carolina goes to imprison more than white adult females is so incorrect, saying to the facts.

Why do Womans Associate to Crimes?

So why do adult females perpetrate offenses? Is it because we are labeled to be low self-denial animals? Or do we make what we got to make to last. Crimes that a adult female commits have a different entire signifier from male criminalism. How can we state that there is a difference? The differences can be seen in the nature of the offense, and its ‘ effects, combined with the method, offense arm, and pick of victim harmonizing to Cesare Lombroso. It is hard to overlook the fact that offenses committed by adult females have a more emotional characteristic so those committed by work forces ( Freda Alder 2007 ) . Harmonizing to Sigmund Freud he stated that adult females who do commits offenses are enduring from utmost phallus enviousness and these adult females want to be work forces. On the other manus Criminologist Katherine Darlton founded in her little sample that adult females who were convicted during the clip they committed their offenses they been on their catamenial rhythm. These are the proved facts or issues why adult females link to perpetrating offenses.

The Family Issues

Harmonizing to James J. Stephen, the likeliness that kids will hold parents who are incarcerated is disproportionately linked to race. In 2009, one of every 14 black kids had a parent in prison, compared with one in every one hundred and 25 white kids. For South Carolina ranking figure nine in the United States 78 per centum of that are female parents. In Greenville County by itself there are 75 kids who are waiting on wise mans because of their parent ‘s absence in prison. Black kids are about nine times more likely than white kids to hold a parent in prison and Latino kids are three times more likely in add-on to James J Stephen.

As indicated by Casey Family Programs, 55 per centum of province captives are parents of kids under the age of 18. With that being said the mean age of kids with an incarcerated parent is eight old ages of age ; 22 per centum of the kids are under the age of five. The cause of parents behind bars leaves a large challenge for the kids and the Caretakers. These are the challenges that these parents leave behind stated by Annie Casey: 1. fiscal instability and stuff adversity, with fiscal jobs are the most terrible for already vulnerable households and health professionals who support contact between the incarcerated parent and his or her kid, 2. Instability in household relationships and construction, and residential mobility, 3. School behaviour and public presentation jobs, 4. Shame, societal and institutional stigma.

The Socioeconomics Issues

The Socioeconomics for these Womans are incredible. Stated by SCDC, about four per centum of adult females in province prisons in 2008 had non completed high school. Sixty per centum of incarcerated adult females were non employed full-time upon the apprehension. Thirty-seven per centum had incomes under six hundred dollars in the month taking up to their apprehension, compared with 40 per centum. On the other had merely about 30 per centum of these adult females were having public assistance benefits before their apprehension. Largely the adult females who are incarcerated in the State of South Carolina 34 % of these adult females left school because they were pregnant. On the word of SCDC most likely adult females who have low income good you can see to be lower category largely likely to perpetrate offenses such as Fraudulent Activity & A ; Forgery/Counterfeiting, since they do n’t hold the benefits. That the Middle/Upper Class adult females commit offenses such as Embezzlement, Property Crime, & A ; Tax Revenue such they have the entree to the money.

Mental/Physical Issues

Womans in the State Prisons of South Carolina were more likely to describe utilizing drugs at the clip of their discourtesy than work forces 40 % vs. 32 % , and about one-third reported that they had committed their discourtesy to obtain money to purchase drugs ( Allen Beck 2006 ) . More than half good 57 % of adult females incarcerated under our province legal power reported that they had experienced either sexual or physical maltreatment before their admittance to prison ( Paige Harrison 2005 ) . About three-fourthss ( 73 % ) of adult females in South Carolina State Prisons in 2005 had a mental wellness job compared to 55 % of work forces in prison harmonizing to SCDC. In general, adult females who are incarcerated well more likely than work forces to hold been diagnosed with a mental unwellness ( Doris Wilson 2007 ) . As indicated by Dana DeHart of the University of South Carolina College of Social Work adult females who have major depressive upset represent 28 per centum of the prison population, adult females who have bipolar upset represent 15 per centum and females with schizophrenic disorder spectrum upsets represent 4 per centum of South Carolina Correctional Institution.

Methodology

This research Methodology requires garnering relevant informations from specified paperss and computing machine databases in order for me to inform my readers and myself about adult females who are behind bars. Making this brilliant paper I used secondary analysis, to research of import information about how the first adult females prison was established and enlightening information about these adult females issues. In order for me to carry on this survey I used scholarly journal articles, books, and legitimate cyberspace beginnings.

Discussion

As I have stated before the rates of adult females being or going incarcerated is at its all times high. Even though the males are still in the lead, adult females are non that far behind. In order for us to halt the re-entry or admittance of these adult females we should hold more supportive plans in our communities.

Decision

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