Ch.23 Study Guide

1.Miguel Angel Asturias- A Nobel Prize wining novelist and poet from Guatemala.  Wrote about his experience under a dictatorship.  Established small-town life and a clash of cultures as themes
2.Frida Kahlo- Started painting in 1925 when she was hospitalized.  Married Diego Rivera.  Was inspired by retablos, religious paintings.  Was a champion of Mexican culture.
3.John  F. Kennedy  Kennedy encouraged Latin American countries to undertake reforms to raise the standard of living for their people with the Alliance for Progress in 1961.
4.Luis Munoz Marin  Became Puerto Ricos first elected governor in the 1950s.  He supported a program to encourage tourism and develop industry on the island.
5.Gabriel Garcia Marquez- Nobel Prize winning author in Columbia.  Wrote in a Style called magical realism.  Most popular novel was One Hundred years of Solitude.
6.James Munroe  Issued the Munroe Doctrine in 1823 which disallowed colonization in the Americas
7.Pablo Neruda – Chiles Nobel Prize winning poet who criticized the United States for using its power and wealth to carve up Panama.
8.Manuel Noriega  Panamas president who was charged by the United States with drug trafficking in 1988.
9.Franklin D. Roosevelt  Announced the Good Neighbor Policy in 1933, which declared that no state has the right to intervene in the internal or external affairs of another state.
10.Theodore Roosevelt  President that offered Columbia $10 million for a strip of land in Panama to build a canal.  Roosevelt encouraged rebels in Panama to rebel when Columbia rejected the offer.  In 1903 when the Panama people received their independence, they granted US the 10 mile wide canal zone.

II.
1.  Under the Platt Amendment, the United States claimed the right to intervene in Cuban affairs.
2.  The United States gained Puerto Rico and Philippines from Spain.
3.  Financial interests led the United States to intervene in Latin America.  In the early 1900s, the Dominican Republic was unable to pay its debts to American banks.  American forces also occupied Nicaragua and Haiti ,and intervened in the affairs of Honduras 6 times.  In each case, they stepped in to protect American lives and property or to support a government that favored American interests.
4.  The United States wanted to create a solid anti-communist bloc in the Americas.  The United States primary concern was the communist country of Cuba.
5.  Guatemala(1950), Cuba(1960s), Dominican Republic(1965), Grendada(1983), Panama(1989) and Chile(1970s).
6.  The United States influenced the Latin American governments to adopt democratic and republic styles of government and helped them fight the communist leftists, rightists and rebels.
7.  Until the 1950s Puerto Ricos economy depended on a single crop, sugar.  A program to encourage tourism and develop industry on the island was called Operation Bootstrap.  Hundreds of American companies set up factories to produce shoes, clothing, chemicals, and electronics.
8.  Because many Latin American nations are relatively small , they have limited national markets for their goods.  During the 1960s and 1970s , some nations organizations, they created larger markets for the sale of their products.
9.  It was set up in 1948 to help members settle disputes through peaceful means, discourage foreign intervention in the region, and promote economic development and democracy.
10.  Most Latin American countries have borrowed heavily from foreign banks and governments.  During the 1980s interest rates rose and the world economy slowed.
11.  Banks lowered interest rates and extended the repayment period.  They also canceled some debt in exchange for the ownership of local companies.  In debt-for-nature swaps, foreign leaders agreed to cancel a small part of a nations debt if it agreed to support local conservation projects.
12.  Latin Americans view the drug trade as an international problem that cannot simply solved by eliminating the farmers.  The Latin American farmers also view the drug trade as simply another cash crop that disfavorably looked upon by the rest of the world.
13.  In Latin America the population explosion and the need to develop resources threatened natural environments.  They have : harvested lumber from the rainforest, cut strip mines in wilderness areas, over-fished coastal waters, and air pollution endangers peoples health in crowded urban areas.
14.  The turmoil of the 1960s and 1970s led to widespread human rights abuses in Latin America.  Military governments in Argentina, Chile, and Uruguay tortured and killed citizens who opposed their leaders.  In Cuba, Castro imprisoned citizens who spoke out against his regime.  The governments of Guatemala and El Salvador allowed right-wing death squads to assassinate farmers, priests, nuns, students, and labor leaders.
15.  Military governments in Argentina, Chile, and Uruguay tortured and killed citizens who opposed their leaders.  In Cuba, Castro imprisoned citizens who spoke out against his regime.  The governments of Guatemala and El Salvador allowed right-wing death squads to assassinate farmers, priests, nuns, students, and labor leaders.
16.  Small-town life, the clash of cultures, and living under a dictatorship were all major themes of Latin American literature.
17.  Latin America has produced a variety of popular music and dance styles.  Often a certain kind of music is linked to a particular dance step.  In Argentina the tango is both a sad song and a complex dance.  In Brazil, people both dance and sing the bossa nova, samba, and lambada.  The Caribbean islands have produced many music-and-dance forms, including the rumba from Cuba, calypso from Trinidad, merengue from the Dominican Republic, and salsa from Puerto Rico.
18. The Caribbean islands have produced many music-and-dance forms, including the rumba from Cuba, calypso from Trinidad, merengue from the Dominican Republic, and salsa from Puerto Rico.
19.  During the 1920s and 1930s, Diego Rivera, Jose Clemente Orozco, and David Alfaro Siqueiros created mural paintings that portrayed the struggles and achievements of the Mexican people.  Their vivid, bold work influenced artists around the world.

III.
1.Andean Pact  Organized in 1969 by Columbia, Ecuador, Peru, Boliva, Chile, and Venezuela (1973).  Members of the Pact agreed to lower their tariffs and promote economic development.
2.Brazil  In Brazil, people both dance and sing the bossa nova, samba, and lambada.
3.commonwealth  This is a country that has its own constitution and elects its own governor and legislature, but are citizens of the country that owns the commonwealth and must obey that nations laws.
4.Costa Rica
5.Cuba  Castros revolution in Cuba alarmed the United States.  As a communist nation, Cuba not only became an alley of the Soviet Union but also gave support to revolutionaries in other Latin American countries.  In 1961 the US tried to overthrow the Cuban government with the Invasion of Pigs.  It failed.  In October 1962 the Cubans accepted nuclear missiles from the Soviet Union.  The US then set up a naval blockade of Cuba.  The Soviets eventually removed the missiles from Cuba.  In 1977, Cuba and the United States set up limited diplomatic relations, but tensions remained.  The trade embargo with Cuba remained.
6.El Salvador – El Salvador allowed right-wing death squads to assassinate farmers, priests, nuns, students, and labor leaders.
7.Honduras – American forces intervened in the affairs of Honduras 6 times.  In each case, they stepped in to protect American lives and property or to support a government that favored American interests.
8.Mexican War – In 1845, the United States annexed Texas, which once belonged to Mexico.  A year later, war broke out between Mexico and the United States.  When the Mexican War ended in 1848, Mexico had to give up almost half its territory to the United States.  The war left Mexicans with a lasting bitterness toward the United States.
9.mosaics  design made from colored stones.
10.OAS  The largest regional organization is the Organization of American States (OAS).  It was set up in 1948 to help members settle disputes through peaceful means, discourage foreign intervention in the region, and promote economic development and democracy.  The OAS includes the United States, which has tended to dominated the organization.
11.retablos  religious paintings offered as thanks for escape from misfortune.
12.Sendero Luminoso  (Shining Path) Extreme left wing group that resorted to torture and murder in their on-going struggle to control the country of Peru.
13.Spanish-American War  As the United States industrialized, it extended its influence in the Caribbean and Central America.  During the 1890s, Cuban patriots were battling for independence from Spain.  In 1898, the United States declared war on Spain and joined the fighting.  It promised that once peace was achieved it would leave the government and control of Cuba to its people.  The Spanish American War ended in victory for the United States.  Cuba did gain its independence, but the United States forced Cuba to include the Platt Amendment as part of its new constitution.  Under the Platt Amendment the United States claimed the right to intervene in Cuban affairs.  As a result the United States gained Puerto Rico and Philippines from Spain.
14.ultraismo  The belief that art should exist for its own sake, not for any social or political reasons.