Chemistry research Essay

Highlighting the strands of hair can be acquired naturally or chemically. To change the hair naturally, sunlight can brighten the hair depending on the color. This process takes a couple of weeks to notice a change In the color of the hair. Those with darker hair such as medium brown tend to turn to hydrogen peroxide or a hair lightener cream. When using these chemicals the artificial color pigments Is removed from the hair strands, this is referred to as “striping. To fully understand the process of highlighting it is necessary to know the structure of the human hair, understand the pH scale, and distinguishing between the three variables in dying hair. The variables of hair highlighting are lemon Juice, hydrogen peroxide, and hair lightener cream. Hair is a string-like feature on mammals coming out of the follicle on the skin. Even though hair Is made up of mainly keratin it also consists of three mall regions which are the cuticle, medulla, and cortex. The papilla is where the hair grows from, a hair strand Is basically composed of dead cells.

On the part of the hair strand there is a shaft and a root that goes into the skin. The main components are keratin, Elaine. And some metallic elements. These elements appear during the growth or naturally from the hairs surroundings. After a while the hair stays in a resting stage for the body to take In. The outer layer of the hair strand Is referred to as the cuticle. It is basically hard layers on top of layers sometimes more than fifteen deep. These dead cells which form the layers gives the hair protection.

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The cuticle protects from all damages once the cuticle is broken then the cortex and medulla are accessed and broken down. The cuticle is responsible for the mechanics of the hair fibers. It is also In control of the shine of the hair strand and Is said to be water resistant. It can be damaged by excessive heat or constant chemical interactions such as hair dye, perms, or textures. Even the weather can wear down the hair cuticle such as the sun and wind. The cuticle is not responsible for the color of the hair.

The melanin, located In the cortex, gives off the color of the hair. The medulla Is the central area for the cells in the hair strand. “If it is filled with air, it appears as a black or opaque structure under transmitted light. Or as a white structure under reflected light” (1). The function of the medulla is yet to be established, but the research Is still in progress, The medulla is the innermost part of the hair and is composed of round cells which are to five rows across. The medulla is found in thick hair, but is usually absent in fine and naturally blonde hair. When the medulla is present is human hairs, its structure can be described as-fragmentary or trace, discontinuous or broken, or continuous” (1). Cortex. As we have already said, this is the main part of the hair that Is placed under the cuticle. The cortex consisted of fibers that are tryingly intertwined into each other. They are very flexible and can be stretched out and returned to its original length without creating any damage. The color of the hair originates from the melanin and epiphenomena which are the pigments of color in the cortex.

The cortex structure “is made of keratin, a protein that Itself Is comprised of amino acid units” (2). The amino acids are in long, coiled chains. The polypeptide 1 OFF bonds can be easily mended back together while the permanent bonds are tough to rejoin after being chemically broken. This creates damage in the hair that leads to plot ends which could prevent vitamins from reaching the bottom of the hair strand. Breakage at the bottom is unhealthy and leads to lack of hair growth. Split ends are a sign of dead and unhealthy hair and they Just keep your hair from growing.

Trimming them off will be good it will give you a healthier start. If you apply a lot of heat to your hair than try spraying heat protector spray beforehand to help minimize any damage done and try using split end menders. The pH scale is a ranking of a solutions acidity or alkalinity. The abbreviation “pH” stands for “potential hydrogen. ” The mathematical ormolu of the pH scale is pH = – log [H+]. The scale is ranged for zero to fourteen with water being the solution in the middle at 7. 0. Anything below 7. 0 is acidic while anything about 7. 0 is alkaline or basic and 14. Is the strongest alkaline. A solution with a pH scale of 2. 0 compared to a solution with a pH scale of 3. 0 is actually ten times more acidic. The human hair is composed of protein and other materials. The medulla which is in the center of the hair strand is made up of air and not found in many hair strands. The cortex is made up of many fibrous coils consisting of keratin which makes the hair strong and elastic. In this area melanin also exists which gives the hair color. The outside layer of the hair strand is the cuticle and it protects everything on the inside of the hair strand.

The mantle which the hair and skin covers ranks 5. 0 on the pH scale. This is very important because it helps humans keep moisture in their hair and skin even though it is acidic. This mantle also make the cuticle lie flat against the hair shaft. This results in smoother and shinier hair. The mantle could be destroyed by styling and other exposures but can be restored with pH-balanced products. These products can harden the outside layer of the hair and benefit the cuticles and diameter of the hair. This also helps make the hair from latching on to other strands which can cause split ends.

These products also leave a glossy finish. Hair is at its maximum strength when it is close to a pH of 5. 0. When dying use special products such as “Shampoos and conditioners that are mildly acidic” (3) because they have been known to keep the color lasting for a while longer. Alkaline products take the oils out of the hair strand which results in frizzy hair that could lead to breakage. Lemon Juice is used to give the hair a golden touch. Lemon juice does lighten hair color. It contains citric acid which has performs a bleaching action on the natural pigments in your hair.

When used regularly, the Juice will eventually lighten hair strands and give the effect of highlights. It does not turn dark hair to immediately bleach blonde, but gives the hair some life. For a big change the “most famous hair bleach is hydrogen peroxide of peroxide blonde fame. Unlike sunlight and lemon Juice, peroxide is an oxidation bleach, and its effects are less easily undone” (4). Hydrogen Peroxide lightens hair by striping an oxygen molecule from the hair. If you put hydrogen peroxide on a cut it bubbles because it strips an 02 molecule.

The same with hair it strips the hair to color it whatever color is wanted. The effects of hydrogen peroxide is it dries it out and makes it less manageable, which can make it less pliable and make it seem less curly. If used in moderation it can be fine. Like if you Just use a little and stand in the sun, but too much can completely strip the color from your hair and turn it very brassy orange or greenish, process for the application of a single-action, penetrating tint or toner” (5). To get a certain shade lightening creams are used.

Hair lighteners were made to lighten the hair by diffusing the melanin in the cortex. The process to highlighting the hair could be difficult and traumatizing if the right products are not used. Lemon Juice, hydrogen peroxide, and hair lightener creams are the main products used to achieve brighter hair tone. Lemon Juice is a natural way to lighten the hair and does not cause much damage. It does not give a dramatic change but a brighter look. Hydrogen peroxide can take the hair from dark brown to bleach blonde. Side effects also come along with this variable such as damaged ends ND frizzy, dried hair.

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