Japan

 As we know, Japans economy, situation, and condition was totally destroyed during the World War II. But surpassingly, Japan now become one of the powerful countries in the world especially in the economic in only took for less than fifty years. This the reason why I choose this topic. In this Paper we will look at how are the Japanese managing their company that is one of the key of their success in the business. Also I will comparing the Japanese way with what the western country way of how to manage. The possibility of us in putting in the Japanese Theory in our (western) world are also discussed in this paper.

1.0. INTRODUCTION

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As we know, Japan had a very amazing growth in economy in the 70s and 80s. We remembered that before Japan had this growth, Japans economy was really destroyed by the World War Two. Japanese bounced back from disaster to one of the most powerful countries. Two reasons Japanese firm became so successful is how h well managed their firms are. They blend their own culture with others in operating their firms, as a result, they come out with their own unique way of management. They are also successful in the way they develop their human resources.

The Japanese business and management system is strongly rooted in Japanese culture and tradition. Japanese have a very unique relationship between institutions and state, between individuals and the state, and between individuals and individuals. These relationships are linked to culture and traditional values. The Japanese is a plural homogeneous society. They have varieties of people but instead of individualism, they tend to form a group and there are no competition between group.

They have very good loyalty in a group. Lee and schwendian wrote in their book,” When a Japanese man asked his occupation, he will usually answer that he is a Sony or Hitachi man, not that he is an accountant, sales person, or business manager. (Japanese Management, 1982. pp 9). The Japanese also tend to look a non-Japanese as an outsider. They will treated non Japanese differently until they are learned how Japanese culture works. The Japanese often refer to their nation as our country (waga ku! ni) and non Japanese as outside people (gaijin). (Lee and Schwendiman, 1982. pp. 7). In the Japanese psyche is a concept of inside (uchi) and outside (soto) that not only defines ones membership, in a group but determines how one speaks to and interact with others. (Iwata 1977, pp. 60-65).

1.1. CULTURE INFLUENCE

The Japanese have a very unique culture. They are good at mixing other cultures with their own. As a result of this blending, they come out with their own identity. China was the most importantly influenced. Buddhist and Confucian philosophy are the basic framework the Japanese use to develop their way of thinking. Buddhist was contributing the way of life. The Confucian taught the Japanese about traditional value, external values, and harmony within the society, while at the same time emphasizing the collective aspect of the social order. These systems are the most important thoughts of Japanese management system. The Japanese used these influences to reject individualism. They prefer the natural order represented by people living in human community, rather than by individual living in the state of nature.

Even though Japanese culture had a lot of influence by others, Japanese still use their own culture to develop their management system. One of the Japanese traditional values is the samurai. Samurais are a leader in a society. They have three codes: first, giri, social obligation, second, on, the concept of benevolence and thus obligation to the lesser status, third, ninjo, a human felling- a kind of tolerance for human nature. These three characteristics are known as the code of ethics in a professionals life. Beside these three, samurai are also known for the loyalty to their landlord. Todays Japanese dedicate their life to a corporation for their work. These system in their society are well known and apparently will be used as long as this form of elitism justified itself through legitimate behavior.

Japanese firms used ringi-sei to make a decision regarding firm decisions. Ringi-sei is a document circulated from the bottom levels of management to the top, and requires the signature of each manager at each level involved before a decision can be implemented. The top managers only act as a facilitator to the lower management, and if the decision is made then the upper management will look at whether it is proper or not. These systems of decision making will allow everybody to participate in a organization.

The classical Asian assumption about seniority and age are the main influence in Japanese management. The juniors management are always learned and they have to respect the senior management. They must trusted the senior management just like the son to their father. In term, the Senior management have a responsibility to give their knowledge and leaned younger guy. The upper managers have a big responsibility for their subordinates. Therefore, the upper managers have a freedom in hiring them and encouraged them to reach higher productivity. To have a successful career the junior management have to learned everything . There is no fast track. Everybody will get promotion in time. Subordinates look up to the seniors. This maintains the relationship very well.

2.0. Management Japanese System

The beginning of this paper, Japanese used traditional values as a codes to manage their firm. These system can be summarized books: Theory Z (ouchi), Organized of Management (Yamagata) and The Art of Japanese Management (Pascale and Athos). From these three books we find that Japanese management style emphasized the group rather than individual, emphasized on human rather than functional relationship and a view of top as generalist and facilitators rather than as a decision makers.

Japanese society tends to live in groups. This kind of style also is reflected in corporation life. If someone works in a corporation than he or she will felt sense of belonging. He or she will devote his or her life to corporation. In this group, he or she will work as a unit to achieve corporation goals. Akiro Morita, the president of Sony Corporation, once said his firm is a ship. Every person on this ship shares the same fate. If one falters and causes the ship to sink, all will suffer (Morita, 1981). The President of Nippon, describing the differences between America and Japanese management , said that, while a U.S. corporation is regarded as a cold, impersonal economic unit, the Japanese unit is regarded as a community with a common destiny (Japanese Managers 1977, p. 130).

The second important thing in Japanese management is emphasized on human rather than on functional relationship. Japanese firms believe in how important human factor is for a corporation. Therefore, they emphasize in individuals relationship. These are very important since a firm is viewed as one big family. If there is a conflict in the firm, than it must be solved in a way so that one is humiliated.

The last important thing in Japanese management is a view of top managers as generalist and facilitators rather than a decision makers. In a Japanese firm top managers are the ones that have already worked a long time. They already know about the firm and have experience. The important job for the managers is to become a facilitator and a generalist for subordinates to make a decision. A problem will be solved in a group and tend to be a consensus. Perhaps the most widely discussed of Japanese management is consensus or participate decision making. Such decision making modes have received considerable attention by scholars. They conclude that a consensus approach, as compared with individual decision making, often yields decisions that are more creative and that can be implemented more effectively (Ouchi 1981, p.43).

3.0. Practices and Process on Human Resource Management

Another important reason Japanese firms have been successful are, they have developed the human resource very well. Japanese firms know that they have a limited resources except human resource. Therefore, the only way to support these limited resources is they have to developed human resource.

3.1. Recruitment

The Japanese believe the basic policy for recruitment is to recruit from new school graduates and the company expects these employees to work until a certain age. The company recruits not for a specific job, but rather for a general job. Then, the new employees will developed their potential in a family atmosphere.

In Japanese firms, an employee is recruited by the company, not by the individual managers. This makes the employee have a sense of security for their job. The managers will take a responsibility for their job. The managers will find another job in another department even when their previous job is no longer needed. Therefore, the firm is expecting a new employee to devote their lie to the success of the company.

In the past, the Japanese firms used to recruit a new employee from the middle school (age 15), high school (age 18) and a four year college graduation (age 22). The middle school graduates usually work in very small factories or shops because the medium and large company needs at least a high school education. Male university graduates are expected to be future mangers. But today many companies are trying to recruit from two year colleges, female university graduates, vocational school graduates, and master and PhDs.

Japanese firms usually recruit a new employee directly from school. Therefore, the school has an important role in the recruitment process. Schools are the bridge between employee and employer. School and a firms had a good relationship. Both expect to have a long term relationship. The firms need the high recruitment and the school reputation depends on the new employee. Schools usually provides information about a company to a prospect employee a year before they graduate. They must already be prepared in the final year.

The screening process in a firms uses: examination of school records, essay test, and interview. In the school record, a Japanese firm usually is very particular, they need the best in a school. Some very large companies may decide that only those who earned a grade of “A” in at least 20 subjects should be accepted (Hideo Inohara. 1990). The age is also to be considered for the accepting employee. The employee must have a certain age, and the age limit is 25 years old age as a new recruitment. After he has reached 25 years old, it is considered time too long to graduate. Japanese firms do not put a lot of weight on testing. They usually test general knowledge. The test includes an English test for the university graduates. The test is basically to decide which department the new employee deserves.

The most important screening is the interviewed. The success of an interview is the one that the decides whether they accept them or not. Many companies interview two times, but sometimes another interview is conducted by large companies. First interview usually by the alumnus of school which work in the company. Then if the alumnus is satisfied by their interview, the alumnus takes the applicant to a personnel staff and the second interview is conducted. The large companies also conduct a group interview. It means that the large companies gives a subject to be discussed in the group with others in the school group. The companies will consider being hired by seeing which group reaches the decision, and works as a group.

3.2. Training and Development

In the training and development, the Japanese firms have four characteristics: first, emphasizing human relation, second, being corporate responsible, third being continuous and versatile, forth, having multiple purposes. (Hideo Inohara 1990, p.69)

Japanese firms know that their worker has a certain knowledge about technology or skill. To develop this knowledge, firms believe the best way is learning by CO-worker. A firm does not have manual guide books. Hiroshi Takeuchi wrote, In Japanese enterprises , manuals, if there are any manuals, are not so detailed, and usually they are for non-clerical work. (The Management Challenge. 1985). The firm has a responsibility to develop their employee. The training is treated as an asset of the firm. This training is shared to CO worker to achieve the firms goal, it is not used to the benefit of the individuals. The training is important, since the firm hires people on a long term contract.

To trine their employee, Japanese firms do not train in a specific subject. Instead, they gave knowledge about different skills. The object of this kind a training is to take the employee to become versatile, since the transfer between department can be occurring. This training makes the employee to think as a group as individual.

The last characteristic of training and development is to focus on multiple purposes. The rapid changes within a corporation must be maintained by being versatile. A top manager believes that the need of corporation, worker relationship, and technology are changed rapidly and the only way to survive, employees have to be able to adapt to these changes.

The form of Japanese firm used in training and development are: career development, training of particular needs, and informal and self-development. (Hideo Inohara, 1990. pp 72)

In term of career development, a Japanese firm provides several training. They are try to make every job easier. Employees are expected to be able to learn by themselves, and if they can not understand about their job, then they can ask the CO-worker about it. Managers also are able to answer the employee. In way the workers will be able to train to themselves while they are working. Job rotation is also a good training. Employee will learn from a different perspective in terms of a companys need. These transfers will bring a refresher to employees and they will be able to improve their skill. The future promotion is deepening on this transfer, therefore they will not refuse it. In figure 1, we can see the effectiveness of job rotation in Japanese firms.

Effect of Job rotation, 1982 ————————————————————————————— It was effective: 65.8  A specific knowledge/skill was required 25.6  Knowledge/skills were broad 25. 4  Managerial ability was improved 14.8 It was not effective: 25.8  Transferred by companys convenience 21.7  It was not at all effective for improving skill 4.1 Other: 8.4 —————————————————————————————————– Figure 1 Note: The data are the number of respondents in percent of those who had experienced of job rotation. Others includes “do not know”. Source: MOL 1985f, p. 251.

Japanese firm usually train their workers outside the company for the specific need. The reason is to learn about the style of management techniques, those including from the westerner. The other reason for outside training is, that there an interaction between worker from different companies and perhaps in the future between companies.

The last form in training and development is the informal training and self development. Companies usually ask employees to develop their skill by themselves. This will give a benefit for the employee. Sometimes, the companies ask the senior employee to teach younger age. 3.3 Promotion Promotion in the Japanese firms is slow but steady. Every new guy must seek the knowledge from their ownselves and from CO-worker. The company also provides the training.

The new guys must take advantage from this system. They have to earned it to get promotion, there is no fast track. Many Japanese firms used a how much merit an employee gives to a company in order to promote someone. The long employee stays in the firm, the bigger chance they get promoted to a higher rank. Even though the employee in time may get promoted, the merit from a company is the one to decide how higher they get a promotion. This kind a system of promotion is very fit to Japanese firm because it similar with Japanese culture. The job grading system is just introduced not long ago to Japanese culture.

The promotion is a very sensitive issue, therefore, the company always takes extra attention ! because an extra promotion for a person in a group environment will bring unfairness. As a result, these will not bring harmony to the company. The Japanese firms are always trying to maintain the harmony in a firms.

3.3. Disciplinary

The act for disciplinary measures is very uncommon to a Japanese firm. Japanese firms are always trying to keep social harmony in the firm which is required for a new employee respect a senior and superior, and have strict observations to a group norm. These rules are not hard for a majority of the Japanese because they are match with their own culture.

There are two kinds of punishment. First is informal punishment. This punishment is to ignore a person in a group. The CO-worker will not let this person work in a group. The company will not give promotion to this person. The second kind of punishment is formal punishment. It means that the firm must take action according to the Rules of Employment. The First stage is to give a written statement to a person. Second, the firm usually asks for a written letter of apology. This letter has a very truthful meaning to a Japanese. The third stage is to cut them financially in period times. The final stage is to ask for voluntary retirement with retirement pension.

3.5. Quality Control

The Japanese learn quality control from America. The name of the founder is Dr. Edwards Deming in 1950s. In the beginning the quality control was the only used the department of quality control. In 1962, quality control was being used in all the department of a firm. The quality control function is already being shifted from quality control to quality assurance. In recent years, the emphasis is going back again to company viewed quality control or total quality control.

Japanese firms have used small group activity on a daily basis, approximately 60% of companies have small groups are in operation (Hideo Inohara, 1990.p 148). Since there are a lot small groups then a firm must used a secretary to control these. The secretariat will report a development of this group to higher management.

The Japanese firms are successful in developing quality control because the Japanese culture and tradition are support it. For example Japanese society rejected individualism they tend to make a group.

There are several steps regarding the quality circle process. First is problem identification, problem selection, problem analysis and resolution, and solution recommendation. Figure 2 is showed the QC process. From this process, the firm allows all individuals to make a contribution for problem solving in their small group. In this way, the individuals will have a sense of participation, contribution, belongings, and they will feel confident about themselves.

When the small group made a decision, then the decision have to be pass to the upper management, to be reviewed again. The final step is to get approved by the president of the company. This system is allow the lower management and upper management have a communication through QC. Quality Circle Process Problem Identification anyone Problem Selection members only Problem Analysis&Resolution members only Solution Implementation Solution Recommendation Management members. Decision Figure 2 3.6. Non-Regular Employee In the Japanese firms the non regular employee is divided in to two categories: first temporary employees, which are employed more than a month but less than a year. Second are day laborers, who are employed daily, but not more that a months period of time. Number of employee by period of employment 1965-87 (unit: 1,000)

The non-regular are treated very differently compare to a regular employee. The salaries are low, they do not have any retirement benefit. Because this kind of employee is knew and the impact for a firm is less.

The Japanese labor market is characteristic by the regular employee and non employees. They have already been discussed in previous paragraph. The hiring for a non regular employees is limited by The Labor Standards Law to be not more than a year. The regular employees are expected to stay in a firm for long time, especially male graduates. The Japanese usually are concerned with males while females are expected to work until they are married or pregnant. Even though today, Japanese firm already started to employee female as future managers but in comparison to males, female employee still way to low. Figure 4, show the number of employment regarding to age.

4.0. Organizational Structure

The Japanese firms established themselves as not just for the economic but also to be social organization. They usually have stressed about harmony within the company and with a social society. For inside company, all workers treated as a family members to reach a harmony environment. The firm usually give a contribution to benefit in a society. 4.1. Work Place The perfect workplace for a Japanese worker is a place where lives their life. These viewed is from the though of a corporation is a big family. The successful of a family is shared by all family members. The condition of family members is being treated well.

Hiroshi Takeuchi, wrote Japanese treats employee as if they were family members. An employee who becomes crippled from an automobile accident after several years of service with the firm will continue to be employed and will no be discharged even if his work efficiency has fallen. If he dies than the company will take his wife and children will took care by the company (The Management Challenge, 1985). The system will make employee to have sense of belonging to a firm and the long term relationship will be expected.

4.2. Work System

A Japanese company have a three organizational principles: market orientation, continuos innovation, and emphasis on relationship. A customer is believed to have an important role in successfully a firms. The firm goals are to served society. Therefore a firm have to take an extra attention to customer. The Japanese also always maintained a good image from a customer.

The second principle is to have a continuous innovation. The technologic and managerial are always changed rapidly, therefore, they have followed this changes through continuously innovation.

The last principle is to emphasis relationship. The important role of managements role is to develop human resource, beside to developed their skill. The managers believed that harmony is the key element to achieve companys goal.

The workforce is looked as one unit. All employees are participant on decision process, not just management can be make a decision. The management and employee have a very good relationship. The different between these two only the time of staying and merit that manager have for company.

JAPANESE STRUCTURE INVOLVEMENT Corporate Objective Group Stimuli Flow of Work/ People Manager Expectation Appeal (Hints and Suggestion) (Why?(why, whom)) Help Understand Backup We (employee) Harmonics Society WESTERN STRUCTURE OF COMMAND Chairman Personal Motives Flow Authority Manager Command Instruction Do What to do Do not How to do Threat and Section Standard and Incentive Worker Action or no Action Conflicting Society Figure 5 Source: Human Resource Development in Japanese Companies by Hideo Inohara.

Japanese working method is to learned from the fellow worker since there is not manual guide. A job description usually only for a general job. A company is expected a worker to develop their own skill or ask a CO-worker. The system is very important since a firm always use a team work. A group working is always sharing anything to solve a problem. The worker must have incentive what are benefits for the group and for company. Figure 5 show the different between the Japanese management structure and the western management structure.

4.3. Personnel Department

The Personnel Department have a function as the central agency in all personnel matters. Their function is not just in the economic but also responsibility of the people who work in firm. These have two implications; On the part of employee, a development is expected by the firm. On the firms part, the firm is responsibility for the worker well being. The Personnel Department have a job in term of general administration: documentation, research, planning and budget. The Employment Regulation is the most important document and have or be registered at the local Labor Standard Office. They have to collect data about of a workers do. They also responsible for manpower used in a company. As the result for manpower that the Personnel Department have to set up a budget for it.

In term of the employment relationship, the Personnel Department have to recruiting and job assignment, training and separation, salary administration, working condition and welfare, and labor relationship. The final decision for all activities is being take by the Personnel Department.

5.0. Summary

In summary, Japanese firm is using their culture in operating of a firms. Their basic management system based on: (1) an emphasis on the group rather that the individual; (2) an emphasis on human rather than functional relationship; (3) a viewed of top managers as generalist and facilitators rather than as a decision marker. A firms always see an employee as a family members. They expected to higher an employee for long term contract.

Japan has grown a lot in population over many years. The current population is 120,760,000. There are about 828 people per square mile. 76% of the population is rural and 24% is urban. Almost all of the people in Japan speak Japanese. The three main religions are Christian, Buddhism, and Shintoist. Japan runs under a Parliamentary government which is a government ran by elected by the people whom they represent similar to how the U.S. is ran. The Prime Minister is the head of the government. All men and women over 20 years old can vote for presidency. Japan makes cars, electronics, textiles, chemicals, steel and machinery. One of Japan’s biggest food products is rice. Japan manufactures cars and also does mining. Agriculture of Japan is very little

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